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- Full title: Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology, 9th Edition
- Edition: 9th
- Copyright year: 2021
- Publisher: Cengage Learning
- Author: Eugene Silberstein; Jason Obrzut; John Tomczyk
- ISBN: 9780357122273, 9780357435267
- Format: PDF
Description of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology, 9th Edition:
Equip your students with the knowledge and skills they need to maintain and troubleshoot today’s complex heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration systems. REFRIGERATION & AIR CONDITIONING TECHNOLOGY, Ninth Edition, is a time-honored best-seller offering the hands-on guidance, practical applications, and solid foundation your students need to understand modern HVAC service and repair, its environmental challenges, and their solutions. Focused on sustainable technology and emphasizing new technologies and green awareness, the Ninth Edition features the latest advances in the HVAC/R industry, including updated content throughout the text and more than 400 new and revised figures and images. Drawing on decades of industry experience, the authors also cover the all-important soft skills and customer relations issues that today’s professionals need to master for career success. Memorable real-world examples, hundreds of vibrant photos, and unique Service Call features bring key concepts to life and help students develop the knowledge and skills to succeed in today’s dynamic industry.Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Table of Contents of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology, 9th Edition PDF ebook:
Brief ContentsContentsPrefaceSection 1: Theory of HeatIntroductionHistory of Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning (Cooling)Green AwarenessHistory of Home and Commercial HeatingCareer OpportunitiesTechnician Certification ProgramsProgrammatic AccreditationNational Skill StandardsCustomer Relations and Technician Soft SkillsUnit 1: Heat, Temperature, and Pressure1.1 Heat, Temperature, and Pressure1.2 Temperature1.3 Introduction to Heat1.4 Conduction1.5 Convection1.6 Radiation1.7 Sensible Heat1.8 Latent Heat1.9 Specific Heat1.10 Sizing Heating Equipment1.11 Pressure1.12 Atmospheric Pressure1.13 Pressure GaugesReview QuestionsUnit 2: Matter and Energy2.1 Matter2.2 Mass and Weight2.3 Density2.4 Specific Gravity2.5 Specific Volume2.6 Gas Laws2.7 Energy2.8 Conservation of Energy2.9 Thermal Energy2.10 Energy in Magnetism2.11 Purchase of Energy2.12 Energy Used as Work2.13 Power2.14 Electrical Power-The WattReview QuestionsUnit 3: Refrigeration and Refrigerants3.1 Introduction to Refrigeration3.2 Refrigeration3.3 Rating Refrigeration Equipment3.4 The Refrigeration Process3.5 Temperature and Pressure Relationship3.6 Basic Refrigeration System Components3.7 The Evaporator3.8 The Compressor3.9 The Condenser3.10 The Refrigerant Metering Device3.11 A High-Temperature, Matched Refrigeration System by the Numbers3.12 Refrigerants3.13 Refrigerants Must Be Safe3.14 Refrigerants Must Be Detectable3.15 The Boiling Point of the Refrigerant3.16 Pumping Characteristics3.17 Popular Refrigerants and Their Important Characteristics3.18 Refrigerant Cylinder Color Codes3.19 Recovery, Recycling, and Reclaiming of Refrigerants3.20 Plotting the Refrigeration Cycle3.21 Plotting the Refrigeration Cycle for Blends with Noticeable Temperature Glide (Zeotropic BlendsReview QuestionsSection 2: Safety, Tools and Equipment, and Shop PracticesUnit 4: General Safety Practices4.1 Workplace Surroundings and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)4.2 Pressurized Vessels, Piping, and Systems4.3 Electrical Safety4.4 First Aid4.5 Ladder Safety4.6 Heat4.7 Cold4.8 Mechanical Equipment4.9 Moving Heavy Objects4.10 Refrigerants in Your Breathing Space4.11 Using ChemicalsReview QuestionsUnit 5: Tools, Instrumentation, and Equipment5.1 Introduction to Tools, Instrumentation, and Equipment5.2 Hand Tools5.3 Power Tools5.4 Electrical Test Instruments5.5 Refrigerant Leak Detectors5.6 Tubing Tools5.7 Piping Tools5.8 Sheet Metal Tools5.9 HVACR Installation and Service Tools and Equipment5.10 Airside Instrumentation5.11 Combustion Testing Equipment5.12 Energy Auditing InstrumentationReview QuestionsUnit 6: Fasteners6.1 Nails6.2 Staples and Rivets6.3 Screws6.4 Hollow Wall Fasteners6.5 Concrete Fasteners6.6 Threaded Rod6.7 Piping and Ductwork Fasteners6.8 Pins, Clamps, and Rings6.9 Electrical FastenersReview QuestionsUnit 7: Tubing and Piping7.1 Purpose of Tubing and Piping7.2 Types and Sizes of Tubing7.3 Tubing Insulation7.4 Line Sets7.5 Cutting Tubing7.6 Bending Tubing7.7 Soldering and Brazing Processes7.8 Heat Sources for Soldering and Brazing7.9 Fluxing7.10 Soldering Techniques7.11 Brazing Techniques7.12 Practical Soldering and Brazing Tips7.13 Making Flare Joints7.14 Swaging Techniques7.15 Compression Fittings7.16 Steel and Wrought Iron Pipe7.17 Installing Steel Pipe7.18 Plastic Pipe7.19 Alternative Mechanical Piping ConnectionsReview QuestionsUnit 8: Leak Detection, System Evacuation, and System Cleanup8.1 Leaks8.2 Basic Refrigerant Leak Detection8.3 Advanced Leak Detection8.4 Standing Pressure Test8.5 Leak Detection Tips8.6 Repairing Leaks8.7 System Evacuation8.8 General Evacuation Procedures8.9 Cleaning a Dirty SystemReview QuestionsUnit 9: Refrigerant and Oil Chemistry and Management-Recovery, Recycling, Reclaiming, and Retrofitti9.1 Refrigerants and the Environment9.2 Ozone Depletion9.3 Global Warming9.4 Refrigerants9.5 CFC Refrigerants9.6 HCFC Refrigerants9.7 HFC Refrigerants9.8 Hydrofluoro-Olefin (HFO) Refrigerants9.9 Hydrocarbon (HC) Refrigerants9.10 Refrigerant Numbering9.11 Refrigerant Blends9.12 Popular Refrigerants and Their Compatible Oils9.13 Refrigerant Oils and Their Applications9.14 Regulations9.15 Recover, Recycle, or Reclaim9.16 Methods of Recovery9.17 Mechanical Recovery Systems9.18 Recovering Refrigerant from Small Appliances9.19 Reclaiming Refrigerant9.20 Refrigerant RetrofittingReview QuestionsUnit 10: System Charging10.1 Charging a Refrigeration System10.2 Vapor Refrigerant Charging10.3 Liquid Refrigerant Charging10.4 Weighing Refrigerant10.5 Graduated Charging Cylinders10.6 Charging Charts10.7 Subcooling Charging Method for TXV Systems10.8 Charging Near-Azeotropic (Zeotropic) Refrigerant BlendsReview QuestionsUnit 11: Calibrating Instruments11.1 Calibration11.2 Temperature-Measuring Instruments11.3 Pressure Test Instruments11.4 Electrical Test Instruments11.5 Electronic Refrigerant Leak Detection Devices11.6 Flue-Gas Analysis Instruments11.7 General MaintenanceReview QuestionsSection 3: Automatic ControlsUnit 12: Basic Electricity and Magnetism12.1 Atomic Structure12.2 The Law of Charges12.3 Conductors12.4 Insulators12.5 Electricity Produced from Magnetism12.6 Current12.7 Units of Electrical Measurement12.8 The Basic Electric Circuit12.9 Making Electrical Measurements12.10 Ohm’s Law12.11 Characteristics of Series Circuits12.12 Characteristics of Parallel Circuits12.13 Electrical Power12.14 Magnetism12.15 Inductance12.16 Transformers12.17 Capacitance12.18 Impedance12.19 Electrical Measuring Instruments12.20 Sine Waves12.21 Wire Sizes12.22 Circuit Protection Devices12.23 SemiconductorsReview QuestionsUnit 13: Introduction to Automatic Controls13.1 Types of Automatic Controls13.2 Devices That Respond to Thermal Change13.3 The Bimetal Device13.4 Control by Fluid Expansion13.5 The Thermocouple13.6 Electronic Temperature-Sensing Devices13.7 Electronic Pressure-Sensing DevicesReview QuestionsUnit 14: Automatic Control Components and Applications14.1 Temperature Controls14.2 Low-Voltage Space Temperature Controls14.3 Line-Voltage Space Temperature Controls14.4 Sensing the Temperature of Solids14.5 Measuring the Temperature of Fluids14.6 Pressure-Sensing Devices14.7 Pressure Transducers14.8 High-Pressure Controls14.9 Low-Pressure Controls14.10 Oil Pressure Safety Controls14.11 Air Pressure Controls14.12 Gas Pressure Switches14.13 Switchless Control Devices14.14 Water Pressure Regulators14.15 Gas Pressure Regulators14.16 Mechanical and Electromechanical Controls14.17 Maintenance of Mechanical Controls14.18 Maintenance of Electromechanical Controls14.19 Service Technician CallsReview QuestionsUnit 15: Troubleshooting Basic Controls15.1 Introduction to Troubleshooting15.2 Troubleshooting a Simple Circuit15.3 Troubleshooting a Complex Circuit15.4 Troubleshooting the Thermostat15.5 Troubleshooting Amperage in the Low-Voltage Circuit15.6 Troubleshooting Voltage in the Low-Voltage Circuit15.7 Troubleshooting Switches and Loads15.8 Pictorial and Ladder Diagrams15.9 Service Technician CallsReview QuestionsUnit 16: Advanced Automatic Controls-Direct Digital Controls (DDCs) and Pneumatics16.1 Control Applications16.2 Types of Control Systems16.3 Pneumatic Controls16.4 Cleaning and Drying Control Air16.5 Control Components16.6 Direct Digital Controls (DDCs)16.7 Residential Electronic ControlsReview QuestionsSection 4: Electric MotorsUnit 17: Types of Electric Motors17.1 Uses of Electric Motors17.2 Parts of an Electric Motor17.3 Electric Motors and Magnetism17.4 Determining a Motor’s Speed17.5 Start Windings17.6 Starting and Running Characteristics17.7 Electrical Power Supplies17.8 Single-Phase Open Motors17.9 Split-Phase Motors17.10 The Centrifugal Switch17.11 The Electronic Relay17.12 Capacitor-Start Motors17.13 Capacitor-Start, Capacitor-Run Motors17.14 Permanent Split-Capacitor (PSC) Motors17.15 Shaded-Pole Motors17.16 Three-Phase Motors17.17 Hermetically Sealed Motors17.18 The Potential Relay17.19 Troubleshooting17.20 The Current Relay17.21 Positive Temperature Coefficient Resistor (PTCR)17.22 Troubleshooting the PTCR17.23 Two-Speed Compressor Motors17.24 Special Application Motors17.25 Three-Phase Compressor Motors17.26 Variable-Speed Motors17.27 DC Converters (Rectifiers)17.28 Inverters and Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs)17.29 Electronically Commutated Motors (ECMs)17.30 Cooling Electric MotorsReview QuestionsUnit 18: Application of Motors18.1 Motor Applications18.2 The Power Supply18.3 Electric-Motor Working Conditions18.4 Insulation Type or Class18.5 Types of Bearings18.6 Motor Mounting Characteristics18.7 Motor DrivesReview QuestionsUnit 19: Motor Controls19.1 Introduction to Motor Control Devices19.2 Full-Load and Locked-Rotor Amperage19.3 The Relay19.4 The Contactor19.5 Motor Starters19.6 Motor Protection19.7 Inherent Motor Protection19.8 External Motor Protection19.9 National Electrical Code Standards19.10 Temperature-Sensing Devices19.11 Magnetic Overload Devices19.12 Restarting the MotorReview QuestionsUnit 20: Troubleshooting Electric Motors20.1 Motor Troubleshooting20.2 Mechanical Motor Problems20.3 Removing Drive Assemblies20.4 Belt Tension20.5 Pulley Alignment20.6 Electrical Problems20.7 Open Windings20.8 Shorted Motor Windings20.9 Short Circuit to Ground (Frame)20.10 Single-Phase Motor Starting Problems20.11 Checking Capacitors20.12 Capacitor Identification20.13 Wiring and Connectors20.14 Troubleshooting Hermetic Motors20.15 Service Technician CallsReview QuestionsSection 5: Commercial RefrigerationUnit 21: Evaporators and the Refrigeration System21.1 Refrigeration21.2 Temperature Ranges of Refrigeration21.3 The Evaporator21.4 Boiling and Condensing21.5 The Evaporator and Boiling Temperature21.6 Removing Moisture21.7 Heat Exchange Characteristics of the Evaporator21.8 Types of Evaporators21.9 Evaporator Evaluation21.10 Latent Heat in the Evaporator21.11 The Flooded Evaporator21.12 Dry-Type Evaporator Performance21.13 Evaporator Superheat21.14 Hot Pulldown (Excessively Loaded Evaporator)21.15 Pressure Drop in Evaporators21.16 Liquid Cooling Evaporators (Chillers)21.17 Evaporators for Low-Temperature Applications21.18 Defrost Methods21.19 Evaporator and Defrost Efficiency ControllerReview QuestionsUnit 22: Condensers22.1 The Condenser22.2 Water-Cooled Condensers22.3 Tube-within-a-Tube Condensers22.4 Mineral Deposits22.5 Cleanable Tube-within-a-Tube Condensers22.6 Shell-and-Coil Condensers22.7 Shell-and-Tube Condensers22.8 Wastewater Systems22.9 Refrigerant-to-Water Temperature Relationship for Wastewater Systems22.10 Recirculating Water Systems22.11 Cooling Towers22.12 Natural-Draft Towers22.13 Forced- or Induced-Draft Towers22.14 Evaporative Condensers22.15 Air-Cooled Condensers22.16 High-Efficiency Condensers22.17 The Condenser and Low Ambient Conditions22.18 Head Pressure Controls22.19 Using the Condenser Superheat22.20 Heat Reclaim22.21 Floating Head PressuresReview QuestionsUnit 23: Compressors23.1 The Function of the Compressor23.2 Types of Compressors23.3 Reciprocating Compressor Components23.4 Belt-Drive Mechanism Characteristics23.5 Direct-Drive Compressor Characteristics23.6 Reciprocating Compressor Efficiency23.7 Discus Valve Design23.8 New Technology in Compressors23.9 Liquid in the Compressor Cylinder23.10 System Maintenance and Compressor EfficiencyReview QuestionsUnit 24: Expansion Devices24.1 Expansion Devices24.2 Thermostatic Expansion Valve24.3 TXV Components24.4 The Valve Body24.5 The Diaphragm24.6 Needle and Seat24.7 The Spring24.8 The Sensing Bulb and Transmission Tube24.9 Types of Bulb Charge24.10 The Liquid Charge Bulb24.11 The Cross Liquid Charge Bulb24.12 The Vapor (Gas) Charge Bulb24.13 The Cross Vapor Charge Bulb24.14 Example of a TXV Functioning with an Internal Equalizer24.15 TXV Functioning with External Equalizers24.16 TXV Response to Load Changes24.17 TXV Selection24.18 Balanced-Port TXV24.19 The Pressure-Limiting TXV24.20 Servicing the TXV24.21 Installing the Sensing Element24.22 Stepper Motor Expansion Valves24.23 Algorithms and PID Controllers24.24 The Automatic Expansion Valve24.25 Automatic Expansion Valve Response to Load Changes24.26 Special Considerations for the TXV and AXV24.27 The Capillary Tube Metering Device24.28 The Piston Metering Device24.29 Operating Charge for the Fixed-Bore SystemReview QuestionsUnit 25: Special Refrigeration System Components25.1 Introduction to Special Refrigeration System Components25.2 Evaporator Controls25.3 Compressor Controls and Oil-Related Components25.4 Low-Ambient Controls25.5 Pressure Switches and Controls25.6 Solenoid Valves and the Automatic Pumpdown Cycle25.7 Defrost Controls25.8 Refrigeration Accessories25.9 System Valves and Service Access DevicesReview QuestionsUnit 26: Applications of Refrigeration Systems26.1 Application Decisions26.2 Reach-in Refrigeration26.3 Single-Compressor Applications and Multiple Evaporators26.4 Parallel Compressor Systems26.5 Secondary-Fluid Refrigeration Systems26.6 Carbon Dioxide (R-744) Refrigeration Systems26.7 Pressurized Liquid Systems26.8 Distributed Refrigeration Systems26.9 Evaporator Temperature Control26.10 Interconnecting Piping in Multiple-Evaporator Installations26.11 Fixture Temperature Control26.12 The Evaporator and Merchandising26.13 Chest-Type Refrigeration Fixtures26.14 Controlling Sweating on Fixture Cabinets26.15 Maintaining Store Ambient Conditions26.16 Walk-in Refrigeration26.17 Condensate Removal26.18 Refrigeration Piping26.19 Refrigerated Air DriersReview QuestionsUnit 27: Commercial Ice Machines27.1 Packaged-Type Ice-Making Equipment27.2 Making Flake Ice27.3 Making Cube Ice27.4 Microprocessors27.5 Water and Ice Quality27.6 Package Ice Machine Location27.7 Troubleshooting Ice Makers27.8 Service Technician CallsReview QuestionsUnit 28: Special Refrigeration Applications28.1 Transport Refrigeration28.2 Truck Refrigeration Systems28.3 Railway Refrigeration28.4 Extra-Low-Temperature Refrigeration28.5 Cascade Systems28.6 Quick-Freezing Methods28.7 Marine Refrigeration28.8 Air Cargo HaulingReview QuestionsUnit 29: Troubleshooting and Typical Operating Conditions for Commercial Refrigeration29.1 Organized Troubleshooting29.2 Troubleshooting High-Temperature Applications29.3 Troubleshooting Medium-Temperature Applications29.4 Troubleshooting Low-Temperature Applications29.5 Typical Air-Cooled Condenser Operating Conditions29.6 Calculating the Correct Head Pressure for Air-Cooled Equipment29.7 Typical Operating Conditions for Water-Cooled Equipment29.8 Refrigerant Undercharge29.9 Refrigerant Overcharge29.10 Inefficient Evaporator29.11 Inefficient Condenser29.12 Refrigerant Flow Restrictions29.13 Inefficient Compressor29.14 Compressor Vacuum Test29.15 Closed-Loop Compessor Running Bench Test29.16 Closed-Loop Compressor Running Field Test29.17 Compressor Running Test in the System29.18 Diagnostic Chart for Commercial Refrigeration29.19 Service Technician CallsReview QuestionsSection 6: Air-Conditioning (Heating and Humidification)Unit 30: Electric Heat30.1 Introduction30.2 Portable Electric Heating Devices30.3 Radiant Heating Panels30.4 Electric Baseboard, Unit and Wall Heaters30.5 Electric Hydronic Boilers30.6 Central Forced-Air Electric Furnaces30.7 Automatic Controls for Forced-Air Electric Furnaces30.8 Wiring Diagrams30.9 Control Circuits for Forced-Air Electric Furnaces30.10 Blower Motor Circuits30.11 Airflow in Electric Furnaces30.12 Diagnostic Chart for Electric Heat30.13 Service Technician CallsReview QuestionsUnit 31: Gas Heat31.1 Introduction to Gas-Fired, Forced-Hot-Air Furnaces31.2 Types of Furnaces31.3 Gas Fuels31.4 Gas Combustion31.5 Gas Regulators31.6 Gas Valve31.7 Fuel Delivery Components31.8 Heat Exchangers31.9 Fan and Limit Controls31.10 Pilots31.11 Ignition Systems31.12 Flame Rectification31.13 High-Efficiency Gas Furnaces31.14 Electronic Ignition Modules and Integrated Furnace Controllers31.15 Two-Stage and Modulating Gas Furnaces31.16 Venting31.17 Gas Piping31.18 Gas Furnace Wiring Diagrams and Troubleshooting Flowcharts31.19 Troubleshooting the Safety Pilot-Proving Device-The Thermocouple31.20 Troubleshooting Spark Ignition and Intermittent Pilot Systems31.21 Combustion Efficiency31.22 Preventative Maintenance31.23 Service Technician CallsReview QuestionsUnit 32: Oil Heat32.1 Introduction to Oil-Fired, Forced-Warm-Air Furnaces32.2 Physical Characteristics32.3 Fuel Oils32.4 Oil Storage32.5 Fuel Oil Supply Systems32.6 Combustion32.7 Preparation of Fuel Oil for Combustion32.8 By-Products of Combustion32.9 Gun-Type Oil Burners32.10 Oil Furnace Wiring Diagrams32.11 Wiring Diagram for the Stack Switch Safety Control32.12 Wiring Diagram for Cad Cell Primary Control with Intermittent Ignition32.13 Wiring Diagram for Cad Cell Primary Control with Interrupted Ignition32.14 Combustion Chamber32.15 Heat Exchanger32.16 Condensing Oil Furnace32.17 Service Procedures32.18 Combustion Efficiency32.19 Preventive Maintenance32.20 Diagnostic Chart for Oil Heat32.21 Service Technician CallsReview QuestionsUnit 33: Hydronic Heat33.1 Introduction to Hydronic Heating33.2 The Heat Source33.3 The Basic Hydronic System33.4 The Point of No Pressure Change33.5 Other Hydronic System Components33.6 High-Temperature Hydronic Piping Systems33.7 Radiant, Low-Temperature Hydronic Piping Systems33.8 Combination (High- and Low-Temperature) Piping Systems33.9 Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heaters33.10 Solar Heating as a Supplemental Heat Source33.11 Preventive Maintenance33.12 Service Technician CallsReview QuestionsUnit 34: Indoor Air Quality34.1 Introduction34.2 Sources of Indoor Air Pollution34.3 Common Pollutants34.4 Sick Building Syndrome34.5 Mold Remediation34.6 Ventilation34.7 Air Cleaning34.8 Duct Cleaning34.9 Air Humidification34.10 Diagnostic Chart for Filtration and Humidification SystemsReview QuestionsSection 7: Air-Conditioning (Cooling)Unit 35: Comfort and Psychrometrics35.1 Comfort35.2 Food Energy and the Body35.3 Heat Transfer to and from the Body35.4 The Comfort Chart35.5 Psychrometrics35.6 Absolute and Relative Humidity35.7 Superheated Gases in Air35.8 Dry-Bulb and Wet-Bulb Temperatures35.9 Dew Point Temperature35.10 Enthalpy35.11 The Psychrometric Chart35.12 Plotting on the Psychrometric Chart35.13 Fresh Air, Infiltration, and VentilationReview QuestionsUnit 36: Refrigeration Applied to Air-Conditioning36.1 Air-Conditioning36.2 Structural Heat Gain36.3 Evaporative Cooling36.4 Package-Type and Split-Type Air-Conditioning Systems36.5 The Evaporator36.6 Evaporator Coil Configurations36.7 Design Conditions36.8 The Compressor36.9 The Reciprocating Compressor36.10 Cooling the Compressor and Motor36.11 The Rotary Compressor36.12 The Scroll Compressor36.13 The Condenser36.14 Expansion Devices36.15 Air-Side Components36.16 Installation ProceduresReview QuestionsUnit 37: Air Distribution and Balance37.1 Conditioning Equipment37.2 Correct Air Quantity37.3 The Forced-Air System37.4 The Blower37.5 System Pressures37.6 Air-Measuring Instruments for Duct Systems37.7 Types of Fans and Blowers37.8 Types of Drive Assemblies37.9 The Supply Duct System37.10 Duct Materials37.11 Duct Air Movement37.12 Balancing Dampers37.13 Zoning37.14 Duct Insulation37.15 Blending the Conditioned Air with Room Air37.16 The Return-Air Duct System37.17 Sizing Duct for Moving Air37.18 Measuring Air Movement for Balancing37.19 The Air Friction Chart37.20 Practical Troubleshooting TechniquesReview QuestionsUnit 38: Installation38.1 Introduction to Equipment Installation38.2 Installing Square and Rectangular Duct38.3 Installing Round Metal Duct Systems38.4 Insulation and Acoustical Lining for Metal Duct38.5 Installing Ductboard Systems38.6 Installing Flexible Duct38.7 Electrical Installation38.8 Installing Package Systems38.9 Installing Split-System Air Conditioners38.10 The Split-System Condensing Unit38.11 Installing Refrigerant Piping on Split-Systems38.12 Equipment Start-UpReview QuestionsUnit 39: Residential Energy Auditing39.1 Introduction39.2 Residential (Home) Energy Auditing39.3 Performing a Home Energy Audit39.4 Diagnostic Testing39.5 Blower Door Testing39.6 Infrared Scanning Using a Thermal Imaging Camera39.7 Sealing Air Leaks39.8 Duct Leakage Testing39.9 Duct Pressurization Test for Total Air Leakage39.10 Duct Leakage to the Outdoors39.11 Combustion Efficiency and Safety Testing39.12 Combustion Analysis39.13 Furnace Efficiency Ratings39.14 Flame Color39.15 Spillage and Backdrafting39.16 Flame Safeguard Controls39.17 Excess Air39.18 Venting39.19 Draft39.20 High-Efficiency Gas Furnace Design39.21 HVACR System Testing39.22 Numerical Analysis and ReportingReview QuestionsUnit 40: Typical Operating Conditions40.1 Mechanical Operating Conditions40.2 Relationships of System Components under Load Changes40.3 Evaporator Operating Conditions40.4 High Evaporator Load and a Cool Condenser40.5 Grades of Equipment40.6 Documentation with the Unit40.7 Establishing a Reference Point on Unknown Equipment40.8 System Pressures and Temperatures for Different Operating Conditions40.9 Equipment Efficiency Ratings40.10 Typical Electrical Operating Conditions40.11 Matching the Unit to the Correct Power Supply40.12 Starting the Equipment with the Correct Data40.13 Finding a Point of Reference for an Unknown Motor Rating40.14 Determining the Compressor Running Amperage40.15 Compressors Operating at Full-Load Current40.16 Two-Speed and Variable Speed CompressorsReview QuestionsUnit 41: Troubleshooting41.1 Introduction41.2 Mechanical Troubleshooting41.3 Temperature Difference, Temperature Split, and Approach Temperature41.4 Gauge Manifold Usage41.5 When to Connect the Gauges41.6 Low-Side Gauge Readings41.7 High-Side Gauge Readings41.8 Temperature Readings41.9 Charging Procedures in the Field41.10 Electrical Troubleshooting41.11 Compressor Overload Problems41.12 Compressor Electrical Checkup41.13 Troubleshooting the Circuit Electrical Protectors-Fuses and Breakers41.14 Diagnostic Chart for Air-Conditioning (Cooling) Systems41.15 Service Technician CallsReview QuestionsSection 8: All-Weather SystemsUnit 42: Heat Gains and Heat Losses in Structures42.1 Introduction to Heat Gain and Heat Loss42.2 Methods to Determine the Heat Gain and Heat Loss of a Structure42.3 Indoor and Outdoor Design Conditions for Heating and Cooling42.4 U-Values and R-Values42.5 Introduction to Heat Gain and Heat Loss Calculations42.6 Elements of Structural Heat Loss (Heating Mode)42.7 Elements of Structural Heat Gain (Cooling Mode)Review QuestionsUnit 43: Air Source Heat Pumps43.1 Reverse-Cycle Refrigeration43.2 Heat Sources for Winter43.3 The Four-Way Reversing Valve43.4 The Air-to-Air Heat Pump43.5 Refrigerant Line Identification43.6 Metering Devices43.7 Liquid-Line Accessories43.8 Application of the Air-to-Air Heat Pump43.9 Coefficient of Performance43.10 The Split-Type, Air-to-Air Heat Pump43.11 Package Air-to-Air Heat Pumps43.12 Controls for the Air-to-Air Heat Pump43.13 The Defrost Cycle43.14 Second-Stage Electric Heat43.15 Servicing the Air-to-Air Heat Pump43.16 Troubleshooting the Electrical System43.17 Troubleshooting Mechanical Problems43.18 Troubleshooting the Four-Way Reversing Valve43.19 Troubleshooting the Compressor43.20 Checking the Charge43.21 Special Applications for Heat Pumps43.22 Heat Pumps Using Scroll Compressors43.23 Heat Pump Systems with Variable-Speed Motors43.24 Preventive Maintenance43.25 Diagnostic Chart for Heat Pumps in the Heating Mode43.26 Service Technician CallsReview QuestionsUnit 44: Geothermal Heat Pumps44.1 Reverse-Cycle Refrigeration44.2 Geothermal Heat Pump Classifications44.3 Open-Loop Systems44.4 Water Quality44.5 Closed-Loop Systems44.6 Ground-Loop Configurations and Flows44.7 System Materials and Heat Exchange Fluids44.8 Geothermal Wells and Water Sources for Open-Loop Systems44.9 Water-to-Water Heat Pumps44.10 Troubleshooting44.11 Direct Geothermal Heat Pump Systems44.12 Service Technician CallsReview QuestionsSection 9: Domestic AppliancesUnit 45: Domestic Refrigerators and Freezers45.1 Refrigeration45.2 Capacity of Domestic Systems45.3 The Evaporator45.4 The Compressor45.5 The Condenser45.6 Metering Device45.7 Typical Operating Conditions45.8 Ice-Maker Operation45.9 Wiring and Controls45.10 Servicing the Appliance45.11 Service Technician CallsReview QuestionsUnit 46: Room Air Conditioners46.1 Air-Conditioning and Heating with Room Units46.2 Room Air-Conditioning-Cooling46.3 The Refrigeration Cycle-Cooling46.4 Heat-Pump-Style Room Units46.5 Installation46.6 Controls for Cooling-Only Room Units46.7 Controls in Cooling and Heating Units46.8 Maintaining and Servicing Room Units46.9 Service Technician CallsReview QuestionsSection 10: Commercial Air-Conditioning and Chilled-Water SystemsUnit 47: High-Pressure, Low-Pressure, and Absorption Chilled-Water Systems47.1 Introduction to Chilled-Water Systems47.2 Compression Cycle in High-Pressure Chillers47.3 Reciprocating Compressors in High-Pressure Chillers47.4 Scroll Compressors in High-Pressure Chillers47.5 Rotary Screw Compressors in High-Pressure Chillers47.6 Centrifugal Compressors in High-Pressure Chillers47.7 Evaporators for High-Pressure Chillers47.8 Condensers for High-Pressure Chillers47.9 Metering Devices for High-Pressure Chillers47.10 Low-Pressure Chillers47.11 Absorption Air-Conditioning Chillers47.12 Motors and Drives for ChillersReview QuestionsUnit 48: Cooling Towers and Pumps48.1 Cooling Tower Function48.2 Types of Cooling Towers48.3 Fire Protection48.4 Fill Material48.5 Flow Patterns48.6 Tower Materials48.7 Fan Section48.8 Tower Access48.9 Tower Sump48.10 Makeup Water48.11 Blowdown48.12 Balancing the Water Flow in a Cooling Tower48.13 Water Pumps48.14 Chemical-Free Treatment of Cooling Tower WaterReview QuestionsUnit 49: Operation, Maintenance, and Troubleshooting of Chilled-Water Air-Conditioning Systems49.1 Chiller Start-Up49.2 Valves for Large Systems49.3 Scroll and Reciprocating Chiller Operation49.4 Large Positive-Displacement Chiller Operation49.5 Centrifugal Chiller Operation49.6 Air-Cooled Chiller Maintenance49.7 Water-Cooled Chiller Maintenance49.8 Absorption Chilled-Water System Start-Up49.9 Absorption Chiller Operation and Maintenance49.10 General Maintenance for All Chillers49.11 Low-Pressure Chillers49.12 High-Pressure Chillers49.13 Refrigerant Safety49.14 Service Technician CallsReview QuestionsUnit 50: Commercial, Packaged Rooftop, Variable Refrigerant Flow, and Variable Air Volume Systems50.1 Rooftop Package Units50.2 Installation of Packaged Rooftop Units50.3 Economizers50.4 Economizer Modes of Operation50.5 ASHRAE Standard 6250.6 Demand Control Ventilation (DCV)50.7 Traditional Constant-Volume Air Distribution Methods50.8 Variable Air Volume (VAV) Systems50.9 VAV Boxes and Terminal Units50.10 Hot Water in the Reheat Coils50.11 Chilled-Water VAV Systems50.12 Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Systems50.13 Dry Coolers50.14 Chilled Beam SystemsReview QuestionsAppendix A: Alternative Heating (Stoves and Fireplace Inserts)Appendix B: Temperature Conversion ChartGlossary/GlosarioIndex