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- Full title: Principles of Singapore Business Law, 3rd Edition
- Edition: 3rd
- Copyright year: 2020
- Publisher: Cengage Learning Asia
- Author: Loo Wee Ling
- ISBN: 9789814875844, 9789814888134
- Format: PDF
Description of Principles of Singapore Business Law, 3rd Edition:
The Principles of Singapore Business Law, first published in 2009, was followed by a second edition in 2013. This third edition provides a timely update of the legal changes that have taken place since then, stating the law as on 4th May 2019. In keeping with the aims of this publication since the first edition, the volume sets out the law of relevance to business, with the lay reader in mind, while providing glimpses into some complex and unsettled areas of law that are of practical interest. In this vein, layman’s language is adopted and pedagogical features are used to summarise, illustrate and provide mindmaps of basic concepts. Unsettled areas are separately highlighted in reflection boxes to provoke further thinking. This volume features some chapters that have been completely or extensively rewritten and others streamlined in both language and content to ensure greater accessibility to the lay reader.
Table of Contents of Principles of Singapore Business Law, 3rd Edition PDF ebook:
TitleCopyrightContentsPreface to the Third EditionList of AuthorsTable of CasesTable of Singapore LegislationTable of Foreign LegislationTable of Treaties and ConventionsPART I: INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS LAWChapter 1 Business, Society and the Law1.1 Introduction1.2 What is Law?1.3 Law as Norms1.4-1.5 Positivism1.6-1.7 Natural Law1.8-1.9 Positivism and Natural Law: The Middle Road1.10 Other Schools of ThoughtEthics and Law1.11 Ethics as Norms1.12 The Differences between Legal and Ethical Norms1.13-1.17 (1) Authority and processes1.18-1.19 (2) Scope of application1.20-1.21 (3) Sanctions1.22 Legal Enforcement of Morality1.23 Positivist Law and EthicsRelationship between Law and Society1.24 Society’s Code of Conduct1.25 Obedience to Laws1.26-1.35 Factors Determining Law-Society Linkages1.36-1.38 Legal Structures1.39-1.41 Legal Cultures1.42-1.44 Legal TraditionsRelationship between Law and Economic Development1.45-1.48 Law and the Management of Risk1.49-1.50 Law and Economic Development in Singapore1.51 ConclusionChapter 2 An Overview of Singapore Legal History and Development2.1-2.2 IntroductionLegal and Constitutional Development2.3-2.9 Singapore in the Pre-colonial and Early Colonial Eras2.10-2.15 The Fledgling Legal System2.16 From the British to the Japanese and Back (1942-1945)2.17-2.22 The Emergency and Path to Self-government (1948-1963)2.23-2.26 Merger: Singapore in Malaysia (1963-1965)2.27-2.32 Independence and Initial Tasks of Nation-building2.33-2.37 Development of an Autochthonous Legal System (1989-present)2.38-2.42 Constitutional Remaking since the 1980s2.43-2.49 Overview of Alternative Dispute Resolution in Singapore2.50 ConclusionChapter 3 Legal Processes and Institutions3.1 Introduction3.2-3.3 The Constitution and the Three Governing Arms3.4-3.8 The Legislature3.9-3.11 The Parliamentary Law-making Process3.12-3.15 The Executive3.16 The Judiciary3.17-3.19 The Common Law Tradition3.20-3.28 The Doctrine of Judicial Precedent3.29 Common Law and Other Legal Concepts3.30-3.31 (1) Common law versus equity3.32 (2) Common law versus written law3.33-3.35 (3) Civil law tradition versus common law tradition3.36 (4) Civil law versus criminal law3.37-3.49 The Court Structure and Hierarchy in Singapore3.50 Technology and the Courts3.51-3.53 Interpretation of Written Law3.54-3.61 The Legal Profession, Legal Education and Other Professional Bodies3.62 ConclusionPART II: BUSINESS CRIMES AND BUSINESS TORTSChapter 4 Business CrimesOverview of Criminal Law4.1-4.2 What is a Crime?4.3-4.11 Objectives and Underlying Principles4.12-4.14 Distinctions between Crime, Tort and ContractAnatomy of an Offence4.15 Introduction4.16 Actus Reus4.17 Mens Rea4.18-4.20 Strict Liability4.21-4.25 Corporate Criminal Liability4.26-4.28 Individual Liable with CompanyBusiness Crimes4.29-4.30 Introduction4.31 Crimes Involving Dishonesty4.32-4.38 (1) Criminal breach of trust4.39-4.42 (2) Cheating4.43-4.51 (3) Bribery and corruption4.52-4.54 (4) Insider trading4.55-4.59 Crimes Involving Lack of Due Diligence4.60 ConclusionChapter 5 Business Torts5.1 IntroductionInterference with Trade and Economic Interests5.2-5.4 General Framework5.5 Inducing Breach of Contract5.6-5.7 (1) Knowledge and intention5.8-5.13 (2) Procurement5.14 (3) Breach5.15-5.16 (4) Damage5.17-5.19 (5) Justification5.20 Inducing Breach of Other Obligations5.21 Intimidation5.22 (1) Threat5.23 (2) Unlawful conduct5.24 (3) Damage5.25-5.26 (4) Two- and three-party liability5.27-5.28 Conspiracy(1) Conspiracy to injure5.29 (a) Combination5.30 (b) Predominant purpose to injure5.31 (c) Damage5.32 (2) Conspiracy by unlawful means5.33 (a) Intention5.34 (b) Unlawful means5.35 Causing Loss by Unlawful Means5.36 (1) Intention5.37-5.39 (2) Unlawful meansMalicious Falsehood5.40 Introduction5.41 (1) Falsehood5.42 (2) Malice5.43 (3) Special damage5.44 Malicious Falsehood Distinguished from DefamationDefamation5.45-5.47 IntroductionElements of Tort(1) Defamatory statements5.48-5.49 (a) What constitutes a defamatory statement5.50 (b) Form5.51-5.57 (c) Interpretation5.58-5.61 (2) Reference to the plaintiff5.62-5.66 (3) PublicationDefences5.67 (1) Justification5.68 (2) Fair comment5.69-5.70 (a) Comment5.71 (b) Comment is based on true facts5.72 (c) Comment is fair5.73 (d) Public interest5.74 (e) Effect of malice5.75 (3) Absolute privilege5.76 (a) Parliamentary proceedings5.77 (b) Judicial proceedings5.78 (c) Executive matters(4) Qualified privilege5.79 (a) Malice5.80-5.81 (b) Communications between persons with correspondinginterests and duties5.82 (c) Statements made to protect self-interests5.83 (d) Reports of proceedings5.84-5.85 (e) Matters of public interest5.86 (5) Innocent dissemination5.87 (6) Offer of amends5.88-5.89 Remedies5.90 ConclusionChapter 6 Negligence6.1-6.2 Introduction6.3-6.4 The Legal Requirements6.5-6.6 Duty of Care6.7-6.14 The Main Judicial Formulations for Duty of Care6.15-6.21 The Singapore Position6.22 Duty of Care: Various Scenarios6.23-6.27 (1) Negligent act or omission causing personal injury or physical damage6.28-6.35 (2) Negligent misstatements causing economic loss6.36-6.37 (3) Negligent misstatements causing physical damage6.38-6.42 (4) Negligent acts or omissions causing economic loss6.43-6.47 (5) Negligent acts or omissions causing nervous shock or psychiatric harm6.48 Breach of Duty of Care6.49-6.52 Factors to Determine the Standard of Care6.53-6.56 Standard of Care Relating to Professionals and ProfessionalStandard of Care Relating to 6.57-6.60 Use of Expert Evidence in Determining the Standard of Care6.61-6.62 Res Ipsa Loquitur6.63 Causation of DamageFactual Causation6.64-6.67 (1) “But for” test6.68-6.70 (2) Material contribution to damage6.71-6.72 Legal CausationRemoteness of Damage6.73-6.75 General Principles6.76-6.77 Special Circumstances of the Plaintiff6.78 Mitigation of Damage6.79-6.80 Assessment of DamageDefences6.81-6.83 Ex Turpi Causa6.84-6.86 Volenti Non Fit Injuria6.87 Exemption of Liability6.88-6.89 Contributory Negligence6.90 Other Issues6.91-6.93 Vicarious Liability6.94-6.95 Director’s Liability for Company’s Negligence6.96 Concurrent Liability in the Tort of Negligence and in Contract6.97-6.99 Limitation Periods6.100 ConclusionPART III: THE LAW OF CONTRACTFormation of ContractChapter 7 Offer and Acceptance7.1-7.2 Introduction to the Law of Contract7.3-7.5 Basic Terminology7.6-7.7 Offer and AcceptanceOffer7.8-7.10 Definition and Nature of Offer7.11-7.13 Offers to Public at Large7.14-7.16 Offer Distinguished from Invitation to Treat7.17-7.24 (1) Advertisements7.25-7.29 (2) Displays of goods for sale7.30 (3) Auction sales7.31-7.32 (4) TendersTermination of Offer7.33 (1) Introduction7.34-7.40 (2) Revocation7.41-7.43 (3) Rejection and counter-offer7.44-7.45 (4) Lapse of time7.46-7.48 (5) Failure of a condition7.49 (6) DeathAcceptance7.50-7.51 Definition and Nature of AcceptanceGeneral Principles7.52-7.54 (1) Acceptance must be final and unqualified(2) Acceptance must be communicated to offeror7.55-7.60 (a) General rule7.61-7.67 (b) Exception: The postal acceptance rule7.68-7.70 (c) Acceptance by silence?7.71 (d) Ignorance of offer7.72 (e) Cross-offers7.73-7.76 (f) Battle of formsSome Issues Relating to Offer and Acceptance7.77-7.83 Certainty and Completeness7.84 ConclusionChapter 8 Consideration and Intention to Create Legal Relations8.1-8.2 Introduction8.3-8.9 Consideration8.10 Consideration Must be Requested for by the Promisor8.11-8.17 Consideration Must Not be Past8.18-8.19 Consideration Must Move from the PromiseeConsideration Must be Sufficient8.20-8.22 Concept of “Sufficiency”8.23-8.24 Intangibles and Moral Obligations8.28-8.30 Existing Public or Legal DutyExisting Contractual Duty8.31 (1) Owed to third party(2) Owed to the promisor8.32-8.41 (a) In return for a promise for more8.42-8.45 (b) In return for a promise for lessWhen Consideration is Not Required: The Exceptions8.46 Contract by DeedPromissory Estoppel8.47 (1) Meaning and origin8.48 (2) Elements of promissory estoppel8.49-8.50 (a) Clear and unequivocal promise8.51-8.60 (b) Reliance8.61-8.62 (c) Inequitable to go back on promise8.63-8.64 (d) Shield, not sword8.65-8.68 (3) Effect of promissory estoppel: to suspend or extinguish?8.69-8.70 Intention to Create Legal Relations8.71-8.74 Social and Domestic Agreements8.75-8.79 Business and Commercial Agreements8.80-8.82 ConclusionChapter 9 Capacity and Privity of Contract9.1-9.4 Introduction9.5 Incapacity9.6-9.13 Minors9.14 Binding Contracts9.15-9.23 (1) Beneficial contract for necessaries(a) Loans for necessaries9.25-9.27 (2) Beneficial contract of employment, apprenticeship or education and analogous contrac9.28-9.30 Voidable Contracts9.31 Ratified Contracts9.32-9.33 Remedies Against a (Protected) Minor9.34-9.38 (1) Section 3(1) Minors’ Contracts Act9.39 (2) Section 2 Minors’ Contracts Act9.40-9.44 Mental Incapacity9.45-9.49 Corporations9.50-9.54 Privity of Contract and Third PartiesThird Party Enforcement of Benefits under Contract: Techniques to Get Around the Privity RuleStatutory Techniques9.55 (1) Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act (Cap 53B, 2002 Rev Ed)9.56-9.57 (a) Scope of application9.58-9.63 (b) Rights of third party to enforce contractual term9.64 (c) Remedies available to a third party9.65 (d) Variation and rescission of contract9.66-9.67 (e) Other provisions9.68 (2) Other statutesSome Common Law Techniques9.69-9.78 (1) Action by promisee on behalf of third party9.79 (2) Collateral contracts9.80-9.82 (3) Himalaya clause9.83 (4) Assignment9.84 (5) Tort of negligence9.85 (6) Agency9.86 (7) Law of trustsImposing Burdens on Third Parties: Techniques to Get Around the Privity Rule9.87 Sub-bailment Contracts9.88 Land Law9.89 Unlawful Interference with Contractual Rights9.90-9.92 ConclusionContents of ContractChapter 10 Terms of the Contract10.1-10.5 Introduction10.6-10.14 The Parol Evidence Rule10.15-10.22 The Interpretation of ContractsTerms and Representations10.23-10.25 Introduction10.26 Request to Verify10.27-10.28 Importance of the Statement10.29 Timing of the Statement10.30 Oral Statements and Written Contracts10.31-10.34 Special Skill and Knowledge10.35-10.40 Implied Terms10.41-10.48 Terms Implied in Fact10.49-10.51 Terms Implied in Law10.52-10.53 Terms Implied by Statute10.54-10.55 Terms Implied by CustomRelative Importance of Terms10.56-10.62 Conditions, Warranties and Innominate Terms10.63-10.67 Classifying Terms10.68-10.78 The Right to Terminate the Contract: the RDC Concrete Qualified by Sports Connection A10.79-10.80 ConclusionChapter 11 Exemption Clauses11.1-11.5 Introduction11.6 Incorporation11.7-11.11 Incorporation by Signature11.12 Incorporation by Notice11.13 (1) Type of document11.14-11.15 (2) Time of notice11.16-11.19 (3) Adequacy of notice11.20-11.22 (4) Effect of the clause11.23-11.24 Incorporation by Previous Course of Dealing11.25-11.26 Construction11.27-11.29 Contra Proferentem Rule11.30-11.35 Guidelines in the Interpretation of Exemption Clauses Attempting to Limit Negligence L11.36-11.38 Statutory Limitations on the Use of Exemption Clauses: Unfair Contract Terms Act11.39 Contracts to Which UCTA Does Not Apply11.40 Applicability of UCTA to “Business Liability”11.41-11.43 Applicability of UCTA to Negligence Liability11.44-11.45 Applicability of UCTA to Breach of Contract11.46-11.47 UCTA and Sale or Supply of Goods11.48-11.50 UCTA and Consumer Contracts11.51-11.60 Test of Reasonableness11.61-11.66 Exception Clauses and Consumer Protection Legislation inSingapore11.67-11.68 ConclusionVitiating FactorsChapter 12 Mistake12.1-12.2 Introduction12.3 Categories of MistakeLegal Consequences of Mistake12.4-12.5 Distinct Consequences at Common Law and in Equity12.6 Effects on Third Party Rights12.7 (1) Where contract is void under common law12.8 (2) Where contract is voidable in equityCommon Mistake12.9 IntroductionCommon Mistake at Common Law12.10 (1) English position12.11-12.12 (a) Non-existence of subject matter (res extincta)12.13 (b) Subject matter already belongs to the buyer (res sua)12.14-12.21 (c) A broader doctrine of common mistake12.22 (2) Local positionCommon Mistake in Equity12.23-12.26 (1) English position12.27-12.29 (2) Local position12.30 Mutual MistakeUnilateral Mistake12.31 IntroductionMistake as to a Term of Contract12.32-12.33 (1) Unilateral mistake at common law12.34 (a) Mistake must relate to a term12.35-12.36 (b) Knowledge of the non-mistaken party12.37 (c) Consequences of an operative mistake12.38 (2) Unilateral mistake in equityMistaken Identity12.39-12.41 (1) Introduction12.42-12.47 (2) Face-to-face transactions12.48-12.52 (3) Non face-to-face transactions12.53-12.55 Non Est Factum (This is Not My Deed)12.56 Rectification12.57 Conclusion: Is There a Doctrine of Mistake to Begin With?Chapter 13 Misrepresentation13.1-13.5 IntroductionOperative Misrepresentation13.6 Elements of MisrepresentationStatement of Fact13.7 (1) Puffs13.8 (2) Opinions13.9 (3) Intentions13.10-13.11 (4) LawRepresentation by Conduct13.12 (1) Express representations13.13-13.14 (2) Implied representations13.15-13.19 (3) Silence13.20-13.21 Ambiguity and Falsity13.22 Materiality13.23-13.24 Inducement13.25-13.28 Addressed to the Other PartyTypes of Misrepresentations13.29 Introduction13.30-13.33 Fraudulent MisrepresentationNegligent Misrepresentation13.34 (1) Negligence at common law13.35 (2) Section 2(1) of the Misrepresentation Act13.36 (3) Measure of damages13.37-13.38 (4) Burden of proof13.39 Innocent Misrepresentation13.40-13.41 Representation as a TermRescission13.42-13.44 General13.45 (1) Restitution impossible13.46 (2) Affirmation13.47 (3) Lapse of time13.48 (4) Third party rightsSection 2(2) of the Misrepresentation Act13.49 (1) General13.50 (2) Types of misrepresentation13.51 (3) Where right to rescind is lost13.52-13.53 (4) Measure of damages13.54-13.60 Exclusion of Liability13.61-13.62 ConclusionChapter 14 Economic Duress, Undue Influence and Unconscionability14.1-14.2 IntroductionEconomic Duress14.3-14.4 Introduction14.5-14.7 The Basis for Intervention14.8 General Principles14.9-14.12 (1) Sufficient pressure14.13-14.23 (2) Illegitimacy14.24 EffectUndue Influence14.25-14.28 Introduction14.29 Categories of Undue Influence14.30-14.32 (1) Actual undue influence: Class 114.33 (2) Presumed undue influence: Class 214.34-14.36 (a) The nature of the parties’ relationship14.37-14.40 (b) Nature of transaction14.41-14.44 (c) Rebutting the presumption14.45-14.47 Creditors and Doctrine of “Infection”14.48-14.50 (1) When the creditor is put on inquiry14.51-14.52 (2) Reasonable stepsUnconscionability14.53-14.54 Introduction14.55-14.58 Narrow Doctrine14.59-14.61 A General Doctrine of Unconscionability?14.62-14.63 ConclusionChapter 15 Illegality and Public Policy15.1-15.3 Introduction15.4-15.10 Statutory IllegalityIllegality at Common Law15.11 Introduction15.12-15.13 Types of Common Law Illegality15.14-15.15 Intermediate CategoryConsequences or Effects of Illegality15.16-15.17 Introduction15.18 Recovery of Benefits Conferred Under Illegal Contract (Restitution)15.19-15.23 (1) Recovery where parties are not in pari delicto15.24-15.26 (2) Timely repudiation or repentance15.27-15.30 (3) Recovery on independent cause of actionContracts in Restraint of Trade15.31-15.34 Introduction15.35-15.40 Validity of “Restraint of Trade” Clause15.41-15.54 Employment Contracts15.55-15.56 Sale of a Business15.57-15.59 Other CategoriesSeverance15.60 Introduction15.61-15.63 Severance of Entire Clauses15.64-15.67 Severance within Covenants: “Blue Pencil Test”15.68-15.69 ConclusionDischarge of ContractChapter 16 Performance and Breach of Contract16.1-16.2 Introduction16.3 Performance16.4-16.5 Strict Performance and Performance with Reasonable Care16.6-16.8 Precise Performance and De Minimis Defects16.9 Personal Performance and Vicarious Performance16.10 Manner of Performance16.11-16.13 Time of Performance16.14-16.17 Order of Performance16.18-16.26 Entire and Severable Obligations16.27 Breach16.28 Lawful Excuse16.29 (1) Discharge by agreement16.30 (2) Contractual term allowing termination16.31 (3) Frustration16.32 (4) Interdependent obligations: Failure to perform by the other party16.33-16.37 Manner of Breach: Actual or Anticipatory16.38 Discharge by Breach16.39-16.40 (1) Termination16.41 (2) Breach giving rise to a right to terminate (“repudiatory breach”)16.42 (a) Actual breach16.43-16.47 (b) Anticipatory breach16.48-16.59 (3) Electing between Termination and Affirmation16.60 ConclusionChapter 17 FrustrationIntroduction17.1-17.2 Scenario17.3-17.4 Legal Development17.5 Juristic BasisConcept of Frustration17.6 Elements of Frustration17.7-17.8 (1) Radically different performance17.9 (2) Neither party at fault17.10 (3) Time of frustration17.11 (4) Foresight and foreseeabilityClassification17.12 General Impossibility17.13-17.14 (1) Destruction of subject matter of contract17.15-17.16 (2) Death or incapacity17.17 (3) Unavailability17.18 (4) Failure of source of supply17.19 (5) Method of performance impossible17.20-17.21 IllegalityRadical Change17.22 (1) Frustration of purpose17.23 (2) Delay, unavailability17.24 (3) Impracticability, increased costs17.25 Frustration of a Lease/Sale of LandSelf-induced Frustration17.26-17.27 General17.28-17.29 Negligence17.30-17.31 Choosing between Several Contracts17.32-17.33 Partial FrustrationChapter 18 Remedies for Breach of Contract18.1 Introduction18.2-18.4 Compensatory Damages18.5 Pecuniary Loss18.6-18.7 (1) Expectation loss18.8-18.13 (2) Reliance loss18.14 (3) Incidental loss18.15-18.21 Quantifying Compensatory Damages18.22 Alternative Methods of Quantifying Compensatory Damages18.23 (1) Loss of a chance18.24 (2) Wrotham Park damages18.25-18.27 Time of Assessment18.28-18.33 Non-pecuniary Loss18.34 Limitations to the Recovery of Compensatory Damages18.35-18.39 (1) Causation18.40-18.44 (2) Remoteness of loss18.45-18.48 (3) Mitigation18.49-18.53 Liquidated Damages and Penalties18.54-18.55 Action for a Fixed Sum18.56-18.57 Recovery of Money Paid18.58 Punitive Damages18.59-18.60 Gain-based Damages18.61 Specific Relief18.62-18.63 Specific Performance18.64 Injunction18.65 ConclusionComparative Contract LawChapter 19 Comparative Contract Law19.1-19.19 Introduction19.20-19.27 Contracts by Correspondence19.28-19.33 Firm Offers19.34-19.40 Parol Evidence Rule19.41-19.44 Statute of Frauds19.45-19.51 “Acceptance” with Terms Different from Offer19.52-19.64 Privity of Contract and Third Party Beneficiaries19.65-19.78 Privity of Contract and Assignment19.79-19.89 Remedies19.90 ConclusionPART IV: SPECIAL AREAS OF BUSINESS LAWChapter 20 Agency20.1-20.4 Introduction20.5-20.6 True Agency Contrasted with Commercial Agency20.7 How Agency Arises20.8-20.9 By Agreement20.10-20.11 (1) Express authority20.12-20.14 (2) Implied authority20.15-20.17 Without Agreement: Agency of Necessity20.18-20.19 Ratification20.20-20.23 (1) Requirements20.24-20.28 (2) Effect20.29 Effects of Agency20.30-20.32 Principal-Third Party Relationship20.33-20.34 (1) Disclosed agency20.35-20.37 (2) Undisclosed agency20.38-20.42 (3) Apparent authority20.43 Principal-Agent Relationship20.44-20.45 (1) Duties of an agent20.46 (a) Duty to avoid a conflict of interests20.47 (b) Duty not to make a secret profit20.48-20.49 (c) Duty not to delegate20.50-20.52 (2) Rights of an agent20.53-20.56 Agent-Third Party Relationship20.57-20.60 Termination of Agency20.61-20.62 ConclusionChapter 21 Business OrganisationsIntroduction21.1-21.3 Overview21.4-21.6 Registering a BusinessCompanies21.7-21.8 Overview21.9-21.15 Categories and Classification21.16-21.20 Company FormationPersona Ficta21.21-21.24 (1) Legal personality21.25-21.27 (2) Looking behind the veil of incorporationHow Companies Operate21.28-21.35 (1) Rules of attribution21.36 (2) Division of powers21.37-21.44 (3) Corporate contractingDirectors21.45-21.47 (1) General21.48-21.50 (2) Directors’ obligations and duties21.51-21.55 (a) Equitable and fiduciary duties21.56 (b) Duty of skill, care and diligence21.57-21.58 (3) Enforcement of directors’ dutiesRelationship between Shareholders21.59-21.60 (1) Statutory contract21.61-21.66 (2) Majority rule and protection of the minorityNon-corporate Business Organisations21.67 Sole ProprietorshipsPartnerships21.68-21.69 (1) General partnership21.70 (a) Dealings with third parties21.71 (b) Unlimited personal liability of partners21.72 (c) Dissolution21.73-21.74 (2) Limited partnership21.75-21.77 (3) Limited liability partnership21.78-21.79 Business Trusts21.80 ConclusionChapter 22 Sale of Goods22.1 Introduction and Scope22.2 Sale of Goods Act22.3-22.5 Domestic and International Sales22.6 Evolving Consumer Protection Role22.7-22.8 Other Sources of Sale of Goods LawApplication of the SGA22.9-22.10 Meaning of “Goods” and “Contract of Sale”22.11-22.14 Sales Compared with Other Forms of Transaction22.15 Formation of the Contract of SaleTerms of the Contract: Duties of the Parties22.16-22.20 Express and Implied Terms: General22.21-22.22 The Price22.23 Duties of the Seller22.24 Seller’s Duty to Deliver the Goods22.25-22.26 (1) Meaning of delivery22.27-22.29 (2) The required time for delivery22.30 (3) Delivery and payment are concurrent conditions22.31 (4) Delivery of wrong quantity22.32 (5) Delivery by instalments22.33 Seller’s Duty to Pass a Good Title to the Goods22.34-22.37 (1) Title22.38 (2) No encumbrances22.39-22.41 (3) Quiet possession22.42-22.46 Seller’s Duty to Ensure that Goods Comply with Description22.47-22.49 Seller’s Duty to Ensure that Goods Conform to SampleSeller’s Duty to Supply Goods of Satisfactory Quality22.50-22.52 (1) Satisfactory quality22.53 (2) Buyer’s knowledge of defective quality22.54 (3) Fitness for a particular purpose22.55 Restriction on Seller’s Ability to Exclude or Modify Implied Terms22.56 Remedies for Breach of Certain Implied Terms: Non-consumer SalesDuties of the Buyer22.57 Buyer’s Duty to Accept the Goods22.58 Buyer’s Duty to Pay for the Goods22.59-22.61 Transfer of Ownership of the GoodsTransfer of Ownership from Seller to Buyer22.62-22.66 (1) Specific, ascertained and unascertained goods22.67-22.69 (2) Sale of goods forming part of a bulk22.70-22.71 (3) Reservation by seller of a right of disposal22.72 Transfer of Ownership by a Non-owner22.73-22.74 (1) Sale by an agent of the owner22.75 (2) Sale under apparent ownership (or estoppel)22.76-22.77 (3) Sale by a person with voidable title22.78 (4) Sale by a seller in possession of the goods22.79 (5) Sale by a buyer in possession of the goods22.80 Risk and Frustration22.81-22.82 General Rule: Risk Passes with Property22.83-22.84 Effect of Location of Risk22.85 Effect of FrustrationRemedies22.86-22.87 Overview of Remedies22.88 Remedies of the Seller22.89-22.90 Rescission for Misrepresentation, etc22.91-22.94 Termination for Breach22.95-22.96 Seller’s Action for the Price22.97-22.98 Damages for Breach22.99-22.104 (1) Measure of damages for non-acceptance22.105 (2) Damages in the case of anticipatory breach22.106 (3) Consequential loss22.107-22.108 Seller’s Rights of Lien and Stoppage in Transit22.109-22.110 Seller’s Right of Resale22.111 Remedies of the Buyer22.112 Rescission for Misrepresentation, etc22.113-22.114 Termination for Breach22.115-22.117 Right to Reject the Goods22.118-22.120 (1) Loss of right to reject22.121 (2) Right of partial rejection22.122 (3) Effect of rejection22.123 Damages for Breach22.124-22.125 (1) Damages for non-delivery22.126 (2) Damages for defective goods22.127-22.129 Recovery of the Price Paid22.130 Specific Performance22.131-22.133 Repair or Replacement: Additional Remedies for Consumers (the “Lemon Law”)22.134-22.136 (1) Non-conforming goods22.137 (2) Buyer is a consumer22.138-22.141 (3) Right to repair or replacement22.142 (4) Price reduction or rescission of contract22.143-22.147 (5) Other points22.148 ConclusionChapter 23 Intellectual Property23.1-23.4 IntroductionLaw of Copyright23.5 What is Copyright?23.6-23.7 General Principles of Copyright Law23.8-23.10 (1) What subject matter is protected by copyright?23.11 (2) Requirement of originality for authors’ works23.12 (3) Reduction into material form23.13-23.14 (4) Connecting factors23.15 Duration of Copyright23.16-23.18 Authorship and Ownership of Copyright/Assignments and Licences23.19-23.20 Exclusive Rights of Copyright Owner23.21 Infringement of Copyright in Authors’ Works23.22-23.24 (1) Primary Infringement23.25-23.26 (2) Authorising primary Infringement23.27-23.28 (3) Secondary Infringement23.29-23.33 Defences to Infringement23.34-23.36 Groundless Threats of Legal Proceedings23.37-23.38 Civil Remedies and Criminal Sanctions23.39 Border Enforcement MeasuresSelected Issues on the Internet and Copyright23.40-23.42 (1) Network service providers23.43-23.44 (2) Judicial site blockingLaw of Patents23.45-23.47 Introduction23.48 Elements of Patentability23.49-23.52 (1) Novelty23.53-23.55 (2) Inventive step (non-obviousness)23.56-23.57 (3) Industrial application23.58-23.63 Patent Infringement23.64-23.65 Defences to Patent Infringement23.66-23.67 Remedies for Patent Infringement23.68-23.69 Groundless Threats of Infringement Proceedings23.70-23.80 Trade Secrets and the Law of ConfidenceLaw of Trade Marks23.81-23.82 Introduction23.83 What is a Trade Mark?23.84-23.88 Absolute Grounds for Refusal of Registration23.89-23.95 Relative Grounds for Refusal of Registration23.96-23.97 Applying for a Trade Mark in Singapore and Duration of Trade Mark Protection23.98 Exclusive Rights of Registered Proprietor23.99 Trade Mark Infringement23.100-23.101 Exceptions to Trade Mark Infringement23.102-23.103 Remedies for Trade Mark Infringement23.104-23.105 Groundless Threats of Infringement Proceedings23.106-23.108 Assignments and LicencesLaw of Passing Off23.109-23.110 Introduction23.111-23.114 Goodwill23.115-23.118 Misrepresentation23.119 Damage23.120 ConclusionChapter 24 Information TechnologyElectronic Commerce and Contract La24.6-24.8 Challenges Electronic Transactions Pose to Contracts and Contract Law and Legislative ReElectronic Transactions Act (Cap 88, 2011 Rev Ed) and Other Applicable Laws and Treaties24.9-24.13 (1) Validity of electronic contracts, digital contract formation and the incorporation 24.14-24.16 (a) When is there an invitation to treat as opposed to an offer?24.17-24.22 (b) General receipt rule v postal acceptance rule24.23-24.31 (c) Terms24.32-24.35 (2) Electronic signatures and electronic records24.36-24.44 (a) Secure electronic signature and digital signature24.45-24.46 (b) Electronic records24.47-24.50 (3) Privity of contract and the automated agent24.51 (4) Mistake, unconscionability and errors in input in electronic contracts24.52 (5) Liability of Network Service Providers24.53-24.60 Data Protection Requirements in the Business Context24.61-24.68 Electronic Direct Marketing and the Legal Limitations24.69 ConclusionChapter 25 Competition Law25.1-25.2 Introduction25.3-25.5 HistoryAnti-competitive Agreements Section 3425.6-25.8 What is an Anti-competitive Agreement?25.9-25.10 Identifying Competitors25.11-25.14 Defining the Relevant Market25.15-25.20 Examples of Anti-competitive Agreements25.21 Vertical Restrictions25.22-25.25 Other Exemptions25.26 Abuse of a Dominant Position Section 4725.27 What is a Dominant Position?25.28-25.31 Abuse of the Dominant Position25.32 Intellectual Property25.33 Vertical Restraints25.34 Anti-competitive Mergers Section 5425.35-25.37 Anti-competitive Mergers25.38-25.39 Exceptions25.40-25.44 Lessening of Competition25.45 Enforcement25.46 ConclusionChapter 26 International BusinessGlobalisation, Law and International Business26.1-26.3 Introduction26.4 Public International Law26.5-26.10 Sources of Public International Law26.11 Status of International Law in a Country26.12-26.16 Jurisdiction in Public International Law26.17-26.19 Nationality26.20-26.29 Conflict of Laws26.30-26.34 WTO and International Trade26.35-26.38 Dumping26.39-26.45 Subsidies26.46-26.58 International Sales26.59-26.60 Trade Terms: IncotermsForms of Doing Business Overseas26.61-26.62 Introduction26.63-26.64 Agents and Distributors26.65 Branches26.66 Management and Technical Assistance Arrangements26.67 Companies26.68-26.70 Project Finance, SPVs and BOTs26.71 Representative Offices26.72-26.73 Franchises26.74 Contract ManufacturingForeign Direct Investment26.75-26.76 Introduction26.77 Expropriation and Nationalisation26.78 Bilateral Investment Treaties26.79 US-Singapore Free Trade Agreement26.80 WTO and FDI26.81-26.83 Resolution of FDI DisputesDispute Settlement26.84-26.88 Introduction26.89 Model Law and New York Convention26.90 The Model Law26.91-26.94 Limited Role of the Court26.95 Conduct of Proceedings26.96-26.97 Making of the Award26.98-26.105 Setting Aside and Enforcement of Arbitral Aw26.106-26.107 Preventive Tools: Due Diligence and Opinions of Counsel26.108 ConclusionSubject IndexABCDEFGHIJLMNOPQRSTUVW