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- Full title: Essentials of Testing and Assessment: A Practical Guide for Counselors, Social Workers, and Psychologists, Enhanced, 3rd Edition
- Edition: 3rd
- Copyright year: 2020
- Publisher: Cengage Learning
- Author: Edward S. Neukrug; R. Charles Fawcett
- ISBN: 9781305461956, 9781305461956
- Format: PDF
Description of Essentials of Testing and Assessment: A Practical Guide for Counselors, Social Workers, and Psychologists, Enhanced, 3rd Edition:
Comprehensive and easy to read, Neukrug and Fawcett’s ESSENTIALS OF TESTING AND ASSESSMENT: A PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR COUNSELORS, SOICAL WORKERS, AND PSYCHOLOGISTS, ENHANCED, 3rd Edition, introduces learners to the concepts and applications of assessment and testing. Case vignettes, samples of real tests, and additional activities and exercises increase understanding.Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Table of Contents of Essentials of Testing and Assessment: A Practical Guide for Counselors, Social Workers, and Psychologists, Enhanced, 3rd Edition PDF ebook:
Front MatterPrefaceSECTION I: UNDERSTANDING THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS: HISTORY, ETHICAL AND PROFESSIONAL ISSUES, DIAGNOSIS, AND THE ASSESSMENT REPORTChapter 1: History of Testing and AssessmentChapter 2: Ethical, Legal, and Professional Issues in AssessmentChapter 3: Diagnosis in the Assessment ProcessChapter 4: The Assessment Report Process: Interviewing the Client and Writing the ReportSECTION II: TEST WORTHINESS AND TEST STATISTICSChapter 5: Test Worthiness: Validity, Reliability, Practicality, and Cross-Cultural FairnessChapter 6: Statistical Concepts: Making Meaning Out of Raw ScoresChapter 7: Statistics Concepts: Creating New Scores to Interpret DataSECTION III: COMMONLY USED ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUESChapter 8: Assessment of Educational Ability: Survey Battery, Diagnostic, Readiness, and Cognitive Ability TestsChapter 9: Intellectual and Cognitive Functioning: Intelligence Testing and Neuropsychological AssessmentChapter 10: Career and Occupational Assessment: Interest Inventories, Multiple Aptitude, and Special Aptitude TestsChapter 11: Clinical Assessment: Objective and Projective Personality TestsChapter 12: Informal Assessment: Observation, Rating Scales, Classification Methods, Environmental Assessment, Records and Personal Documents, and Performance-Based AssessmentGLOSSARY AND APPENDICESFINAL THOUGHTSACKNOWLEDGEMENTSSECTION I Understanding the Assessment Process: History, Ethical and Professional Issues, Diagnosis, and the Assessment ReportCHAPTER 1 History of Testing and AssessmentDISTINGUISHING BETWEEN TESTING AND ASSESSMENTFIGURE 1.1 Assessment ProceduresTHE HISTORY OF ASSESSMENTAncient HistoryPrecursors to Modern-Day Test DevelopmentFIGURE 1.2 Reproduction of Sequin’s Form BoardThe Emergence of Ability Tests (Testing in the Cognitive Domain)ILLUSTRATION 1.1 Recruits Taking an Examination at Camp Lee, 1917The Emergence of Personality Tests (Testing in the Affective Realm)The Emergence of Informal Assessment ProceduresModern-Day Use of Assessment ProceduresFIGURE 1.3 Assessment in the Cognitive DomainFIGURE 1.4 Assessment in the Affective DomainFIGURE 1.5 Informal Assessment ProceduresQUESTIONS TO CONSIDER WHEN ASSESSING INDIVIDUALSSUMMARYCHAPTER REVIEWREFERENCESCHAPTER 2 Ethical, Legal, and Professional Issues in AssessmentETHICAL ISSUES IN ASSESSMENTOverview of the Assessment Sections of the ACA and APA Ethical CodesStandards for Responsible Testing PracticesTABLE 2.1 Standards of Responsible Test UsageMaking Ethical DecisionsLEGAL ISSUES IN ASSESSMENTThe Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) of 1974The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)Privileged CommunicationThe Freedom of Information ActCivil Rights Acts (1964 and Amendments)Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (PL 101-336)Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)Section 504 of the Rehabilitation ActCarl Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006PROFESSIONAL ISSUESProfessional AssociationsAccreditation Standards of Professional AssociationsForensic EvaluationsAssessment as a Holistic ProcessCross-Cultural Issues in AssessmentEmbracing Testing and Assessment ProceduresSUMMARYCHAPTER REVIEWREFERENCESCHAPTER 3 Diagnosis in the Assessment Process*THE IMPORTANCE OF DIAGNOSISTHE DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL (DSM): A BRIEF HISTORYTABLE 3.1 Former Five-Axis Diagnostic SystemTHE DSM-5Single-Axis vs. Multiaxial DiagnosisMaking and Reporting DiagnosisSpecific Diagnostic CategoriesOther Medical ConsiderationsPsychosocial and Environmental ConsiderationsCultural ConsiderationsFinal Thoughts on DSM-5 in the Assessment ProcessSUMMARYCHAPTER REVIEWANSWERS TO EXERCISEREFERENCESCHAPTER 4 The Assessment Report Process: Interviewing the Client and Writing the ReportPURPOSE OF THE ASSESSMENT REPORTGATHERING INFORMATION FOR THE REPORT: GARBAGE IN, GARBAGE OUTSTRUCTURED, UNSTRUCTURED, AND SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEWSComputer-Driven AssessmentCHOOSING AN APPROPRIATE ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTWRITING THE REPORTDemographic InformationPresenting Problem or Reason for ReferralFamily BackgroundSignificant Medical/Counseling HistorySubstance Use and AbuseEducational and Vocational HistoryOther Pertinent InformationMental StatusTABLE 4.1 Common Terms and Definitions or Descriptions Used in the Mental Status ExamAssessment ResultsDiagnosisSummary and ConclusionsRecommendationsSUMMARIZING THE WRITING OF AN ASSESSMENT REPORTSUMMARYCHAPTER REVIEWREFERENCESSECTION II Test Worthiness and Test StatisticsCHAPTER 5 Test Worthiness: Validity, Reliability, Cross-Cultural Fairness, and PracticalityCORRELATION COEFFICIENTFIGURE 5.1 Examples of Positive and Negative CorrelationsFIGURE 5.2 Correlation CoefficientFIGURE 5.3 Scatterplot Charts and Correlational EstimatesCOEFFICIENT OF DETERMINATION (SHARED VARIANCE)FIGURE 5.4 Shared Variance Between Depression and Anxiety (r = 0.85, r2 = 0.72)VALIDITYContent ValidityFIGURE 5.5 Establishing Content ValidityCriterion-Related ValidityTABLE 5.1 Average Estimated Correlations of GRE General Test (Verbal, Quantitative, and Analytical) Scores and Undergraduate Grade Point Average with Graduate First-Year Grade Point Average by Department TypeConstruct ValidityVisual Representation of Types of ValidityFIGURE 5.6 Visual Representation of Types of ValidityRELIABILITYTest-Retest ReliabilityAlternate, Parallel, or Equivalent Forms ReliabilityInternal ConsistencyVisual Representation of Types of ReliabilityFIGURE 5.7 Visual Representation of Types of ReliabilityItem Response Theory: Another Way of Looking at ReliabilityFIGURE 5.8 Item Characteristic CurveCROSS-CULTURAL FAIRNESSPRACTICALITYTimeCostFormatReadabilityEase of Administration, Scoring, and InterpretationSELECTING AND ADMINISTERING A GOOD TESTStep 1: Determine the Goals of Your ClientStep 2: Choose Instrument types to Reach Client GoalsStep 3: Access Information About Possible InstrumentsStep 4: Examine Validity, Reliability, Cross-Cultural Fairness, and Practicality of the Possible InstrumentsStep 5: Choose an Instrument WiselySUMMARYCHAPTER REVIEWREFERENCESCHAPTER 6 Statistical Concepts: Making Meaning Out of Raw ScoresRAW SCORESFREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONSTABLE 6.1 A Frequency DistributionHISTOGRAMS AND FREQUENCY POLYGONSTABLE 6.2 Scores Arranged with a Class Interval of 5FIGURE 6.1 Histogram with Intervals That Have a Range of 5 (Based on Table 6.2)FIGURE 6.2 Frequency Polygon with Intervals That Have a Range of 5 (Based on Table 6.2)CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTIONSTABLE 6.3 Percentages Calculated for a Cumulative DistributionFIGURE 6.3 Cumulative DistributionNORMAL CURVES AND SKEWED CURVESThe Normal CurveFIGURE 6.4 A QuincunxSkewed CurvesFIGURE 6.5 Skewed and Normal CurvesMEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCYMeanMedianTABLE 6.4 Determining Measures of Central TendencyFIGURE 6.6 Respective Positions of Measures of Central Tendency with Skewed and Normal CurvesModeMEASURES OF VARIABILITYRangeInterquartile RangeFIGURE 6.7 Interquartile Range with Skewed CurveTABLE 6.5 Example of Calculating an Interquartile RangeStandard DeviationFIGURE 6.8 Standard Deviation and the Normal CurveTABLE 6.6 Calculating the Standard DeviationFIGURE 6.9 A Normal Distribution (M = 7, SD = 1.83)REMEMBERING THE PERSONSUMMARYCHAPTER REVIEW*ANSWERS TO ITEMS 5 THROUGH 8REFERENCECHAPTER 7 Statistical Concepts: Creating New Scores to Interpret Test DataNORM REFERENCING VERSUS CRITERION REFERENCINGTABLE 7.1 Examples of Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced TestsNORMATIVE COMPARISONS AND DERIVED SCORESPercentilesStandard ScoresFIGURE 7.1 The Normal Curve with Percentile ScoresFIGURE 7.2 z-Scores on the Normal CurveFIGURE 7.3 T-Scores on the Normal CurveFIGURE 7.4 Comparing the Deviation IQ to the Normal CurveFIGURE 7.5 Stanines Compared to z-Scores and PercentilesFIGURE 7.6 Sten Scores Compared to z-Scores and PercentilesFIGURE 7.7 The Normal Curve and Types of Standard Scores*Developmental NormsPUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERSTANDARD ERROR OF MEASUREMENTFIGURE 7.8 Standard Error of Measurement and the Normal CurveFIGURE 7.9 Example of SEM on Two Test Reports with Different ReliabilitiesSTANDARD ERROR OF ESTIMATESCALES OF MEASUREMENTNominal ScaleOrdinal ScaleInterval ScaleRatio ScaleSUMMARYCHAPTER REVIEW*ANSWERS TO ITEMS 4 THROUGH 10REFERENCESSECTION III Commonly Used Assessment TechniquesTABLE 1 Frequency of Tests Used by All Counselors, School Counselors, Mental Health Counselors, and Taught by Counselor EducatorsTABLE 2 Frequently Used Tests by Different Types of PsychologistsTABLE 3 Key Assessment Instruments by Chapter and CategoryCHAPTER 8 Assessment of Educational Ability: Survey Battery, Diagnostic, Readiness, and Cognitive Ability TestsDEFINING ASSESSMENT OF EDUCATIONAL ABILITYFIGURE 8.1 Tests in the Cognitive DomainSURVEY BATTERY ACHIEVEMENT TESTINGNational Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)FIGURE 8.2 The National Report Card: Virginia MathematicsStanford Achievement TestFIGURE 8.3 Individual Student Profile Report on the Stanford 10Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS)FIGURE 8.4 Class/Grade Grouping Report on the Stanford 10Metropolitan Achievement TestDIAGNOSTIC TESTINGThe Wide Range Achievement Test 4 (WRAT4)TABLE 8.1 Score Summary Table (Green Test Form)Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition (WIAT-III)Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT-R/NU)FIGURE 8.5 Subtests and Composite Scores on the WIAT-IIIFIGURE 8.6 WIAT-III Clinician ReportWoodcock-Johnson® IIIKeyMath3 Diagnostic AssessmentFIGURE 8.7 Sample Item for the Applied Section of the KeyMath3READINESS TESTINGKindergarten Readiness Test (KRT) (Anderhalter & Perney)Kindergarten Readiness Test (KRT) (Larson and Vitali)Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT6)Gesell Developmental ObservationRevisedCOGNITIVE ABILITY TESTSOtis-Lennon School Ability Test, Eighth Edition (OLSAT 8)FIGURE 8.8 OLSAT 8 Individual Profile ReportFIGURE 8.9 OLSAT 8 Grade Profile ReportThe Cognitive Ability Test (CogAT)College and Graduate School Admission ExamsTHE ROLE OF HELPERS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF EDUCATIONAL ABILITYFINAL THOUGHTS ABOUT THE ASSESSMENT OF EDUCATIONAL ABILITYSUMMARYCHAPTER REVIEWREFERENCESCHAPTER 9 Intellectual and Cognitive Functioning: Intelligence Testing and Neuropsychological AssessmentA BRIEF HISTORY OF INTELLIGENCE TESTINGDEFINING INTELLIGENCE TESTINGMODELS OF INTELLIGENCESpearman’s Two-Factor ApproachThurstone’s Multifactor ApproachVernon’s Hierarchical Model of IntelligenceGuilford’s Multifactor/MultiDimensional ModelCattell’s Fluid and Crystal IntelligenceFIGURE 9.1 Diagram Illustrating Vernon’s Hierarchical Structure of AbilitiesFIGURE 9.2 Guilford’s Multifactor Model of IntelligencePiaget’s Cognitive Development TheoryFIGURE 9.3 Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence Across the LifespanGardner’s Theory of Multiple IntelligencesSternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Successful IntelligenceFIGURE 9.4 Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Successful IntelligenceCattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Integrated Model of IntelligenceTheories of Intelligence SummarizedINTELLIGENCE TESTINGTABLE 9.1 CHC Factors Listed Under Broad Domains*TABLE 9.2 Summary of Models of IntelligenceStanford-Binet, Fifth EditionFIGURE 9.5 Organization of the Stanford-Binet, Fifth EditionWechsler ScalesFIGURE 9.6 The SB5 Interpretive ReportTABLE 9.3 Abbreviations and Descriptions of SubtestsTABLE 9.4 Subtests and Composite Indexes*FIGURE 9.7 WISC-IV Record FormKaufman Assessment Battery for ChildrenNonverbal Intelligence TestsNEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTA Brief History of Neuropsychological AssessmentDefining Neuropsychological AssessmentMethods of Neuropsychological AssessmentTHE ROLE OF HELPERS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF INTELLECTUAL AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONINGFINAL THOUGHTS ON THE ASSESSMENT OF INTELLECTUAL AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONINGSUMMARYCHAPTER REVIEWREFERENCESCHAPTER 10 Career and Occupational Assessment: Interest Inventories, Multiple Aptitude, and Special Aptitude TestsDEFINING CAREER AND OCCUPATIONAL ASSESSMENTINTEREST INVENTORIESStrong Interest Inventory®*FIGURE 10.1 Holland’s Hexagon Model of Personality TypesFIGURE 10.2 Strong Interest Inventory Profile Sheet for Basic Interest ScalesFIGURE 10.3 Strong Interest Inventory Profile Sheet for Occupational ScalesSelf-Directed SearchCOPSystemTABLE 10.1 COPSystem Assessments and Administration TimesFIGURE 10.4 COPS Career ClustersTABLE 10.2 The COPES ScalesO*NET and Career Exploration ToolsFIGURE 10.5 The 0*NET Content ModelTABLE 10.3 0*NET Domains and SubpartsOther Common Interest InventoriesMULTIPLE APTITUDE TESTINGFactor Analysis and Multiple Aptitude TestingArmed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery and Career Exploration ProgramFIGURE 10.6 CAT-ASVAB Adaptive Item Process SystemTABLE 10.4 ASVAB Domains and TestsDifferential Aptitude TestsSPECIAL APTITUDE TESTINGClerical Aptitude TestsMechanical Aptitude TestsArtistic Aptitude TestsFIGURE 10.7 Commonly seen art test graphics from local art schoolsMusical Aptitude TestsTHE ROLE OF HELPERS IN OCCUPATIONAL AND CAREER ASSESSMENTFINAL THOUGHTS CONCERNING OCCUPATIONAL AND CAREER ASSESSMENTSUMMARYCHAPTER REVIEWREFERENCESCHAPTER 11 Clinical Assessment: Objective and Projective Personality TestsDEFINING CLINICAL ASSESSMENTOBJECTIVE PERSONALITY TESTINGCommon Objective Personality TestsTABLE 11.1 Objective Personality Tests and Their General UseFIGURE 11.1 MMPI-2 Validity and Clinical Scales Extended ProfileTABLE 11.2 Most Commonly Used Scales of the MMPI-2TABLE 11.3 The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III ScalesTABLE 11.4 Personality Assessment Inventory ScalesTABLE 11.5 Interpreting Beck Depression Inventory ScoresTABLE 11.6 Interpreting Beck Anxiety Inventory ScoresFIGURE 11.2 The four MBTI dichotomiesFIGURE 11.3 Sample MBTI Profile for Form MTABLE 11.7 The 16PF® Primary Personality FactorsTABLE 11.8 The 16PF® Global FactorsTABLE 11.9 The NEO PI-R Five Factors and 30 FacetsPROJECTIVE TESTINGCommon Projective TestsFIGURE 11.4 TAT FiguresFIGURE 11.5 Inkblot Similar to Those on the RorschachFIGURE 11.6 The Bender Gestalt FiguresTABLE 11.10 Sample of Suggested K-H-T-P Interpretations (Burns, 1987)THE ROLE OF HELPERS IN CLINICAL ASSESSMENTFINAL THOUGHTS ON CLINICAL ASSESSMENTSUMMARYCHAPTER REVIEWREFERENCESCHAPTER 12 Informal Assessment: Observation, Rating Scales, Classification Methods, Environmental Assessment, Records and Personal Documents, and Performance-Based AssessmentDEFINING INFORMAL ASSESSMENTTYPES OF INFORMAL ASSESSMENTObservationRating ScalesClassification MethodsTABLE 12.1 Feeling Word Checklist to Identify Problematic FeelingsEnvironmental AssessmentFIGURE 12.1 Sociometric Mapping at a PreschoolRecords and Personal DocumentsFIGURE 12.2 Sample GenogramPerformance-Based AssessmentTEST WORTHINESS OF INFORMAL ASSESSMENTValidityReliabilityILLUSTRATION 12.1 Interrater ReliabilityCross-Cultural FairnessPracticalityTHE ROLE OF HELPERS IN THE USE OF INFORMAL ASSESSMENTFINAL THOUGHTS ON INFORMAL ASSESSMENTSUMMARYCHAPTER REVIEWREFERENCESBack MatterAPPENDIX A Websites of Codes of Ethics of Select Mental Health Professional AssociationsAPPENDIX B Assessment Sections of ACA’s and APA’s Codes of EthicsAPPENDIX C Code of Fair Testing Practices in EducationPREPARED BY THE JOINT COMMITTEE ON TESTING PRACTICESA. DEVELOPING AND SELECTING APPROPRIATE TESTSB. ADMINISTERING AND SCORING TESTSC. REPORTING AND INTERPRETING TEST RESULTSAPPENDIX D Sample Assessment Report*Demographic InformationPresenting Problem or Reason for ReferralFamily BackgroundSignificant Medical/Counseling HistorySubstance Use and AbuseEducational and Vocational HistoryOther Pertinent InformationMental StatusAssessment ResultsDiagnosisSummary and ConclusionsRecommendationsAPPENDIX E Supplemental Statistical EquationsPEARSON PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATIONKUDER-RICHARDSONCOEFFICIENT ALPHASTANDARD DEVIATION-ALTERNATIVE FORMULAAPPENDIX F Converting Percentiles from z-ScoresGlossaryIndex