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- Full title: Developmental Psychology, 5th Edition
- Edition: 5th
- Copyright year: 2020
- Publisher: Cengage Learning Canada Inc.
- Author: Shaffer, Kipp, Wood, Willoughby
- ISBN: 9780176873974, 9780176876081
- Format: PDF
Description of Developmental Psychology, 5th Edition:
This interesting, accurate, and up-to-date fifth edition provides an overview of infancy and childhood development that reflects the best theories, research, and practical advice that developmentalists have to offer. Stressing the processes that underlie developmental change, the authors continue to explore the causes and complexities of development, challenging readers to think about the fascinating process of human development, to share in the excitement of this dynamic discipline, and to acquire a knowledge of developmental principles that will serve them well in their roles as parents, teachers, nurses, child-care workers, pediatricians, psychologists, academics, or in any other capacity in which they may one day influence the lives of developing individuals.
Table of Contents of Developmental Psychology, 5th Edition PDF ebook:
Title PageCopyright PageBrief ContentsContentsPrefacePART I THEORY AND RESEARCH IN THE DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCESCHAPTER 1 Introduction to Developmental Psychology and Its Research Strategies 1Introduction to Developmental PsychologyWhat Is Development?The Scientific Study of Development and Its OriginsEarly Philosophical Perspectives on ChildhoodChildren as Subjects of Study: Baby Biographies and DiariesResearch Methods in Developmental PsychologyGathering Data: Basic Fact-Finding StrategiesDetecting Relationships: Correlational and Experimental DesignsResearch Strategies in Developmental PsychologyResearch Designs for Studying DevelopmentEthical Considerations in Developmental ResearchWhat Makes a Research Study Ethical or Unethical?Postscript: On Becoming a Wise Userof Developmental ResearchSummaryKey TermsCHAPTER 2 Theories of Human DevelopmentThe Nature of Scientific TheoriesPsychoanalytic TheoriesFreud’s Psychosexual TheoryContributions and Criticisms of Freud’s TheoryErikson’s Theory of Psychosocial DevelopmentContributions and Criticisms of Erikson’s TheoryPsychoanalytic Theory beyond Freud and EriksonLearning TheoriesWatson’s BehaviourismSkinner’s Operant Learning TheoryBandura’s Cognitive Social Learning TheoryBOX 2.1 FOCUS ON RESEACRCH: An Example of Observational LearningContributions and Criticisms of Learning TheoriesCognitive-Developmental TheoriesPiaget’s View of Intelligence and Intellectual GrowthContributions and Criticisms of Piaget’s ViewpointSociocultural TheoriesContributions and Criticisms of Vygotsky’s ViewpointInformation-Processing TheoriesContributions and Criticisms of the Information-Processing ViewpointEthological and Evolutionary TheoriesAssumptions of Classical EthologyEthology and Human DevelopmentEvolutionary TheoryContributions and Criticisms of the Ethological and Evolutionary ViewpointsEcological Systems TheoryContexts for DevelopmentFamily and the Ecological Systems TheoryContributions and Criticisms of the Ecological Systems TheoryThemes in the Study of Human Development: Questions and ControversiesThe Nature/Nurture IssueThe Active/Passive IssueThe Continuity/Discontinuity IssueThe Holistic Nature of Development IssueTheories and World ViewsThe Developmental Systems ViewSummaryKey TermsPART II FOUNDATIONS OF DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 3 Hereditary Influences on DevelopmentPrinciples of Hereditary TransmissionThe Genetic MaterialGrowth of the Zygote and Production of Body CellsGermlinesMultiple BirthsMale or Female?What Do Genes Do?How Important Are Environmental Influences?How Do Phenotypes Develop through Genotypes?BOX 3.1 DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES: Examples of Dominant and Recessive Traits in Human HeredityPolygenic InheritanceThe Role of EpigeneticsHereditary DisordersChromosomal AbnormalitiesGenetic AbnormalitiesPredicting, Detecting, and Treating Hereditary DisordersBOX 3.2 CURRENT CONTROVERSIES: Ethical Issues Surrounding Treatments for Hereditary DisordersHereditary Influences on behaviourMethods of Studying Hereditary InfluencesEstimating the Contribution of Genes and EnvironmentHereditary Contributions to PersonalityHereditary Contributions to Behaviour Disorders and Mental IllnessTheories of Heredity and Environment Interactionsin DevelopmentThe Canalization PrincipleThe Range-of-Reaction PrincipleFrom Genotype to EnvironmentHow Do Genotype/EnvironmentInteractions Influence Development?Contributions and Criticisms of the Behavioural Genetics ApproachApplying Developmental Themes to Hereditary Influences on DevelopmentSummaryKey TermsCHAPTER 4 Prenatal DevelopmentFrom Conception to BirthThe Period of the ZygoteThe Period of the EmbryoThe Period of the FetusEnvironmental Influences on Prenatal DevelopmentTeratogensBOX 4.1 DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES: Teratogenic Effects of Sexually Transmitted Diseases/InfectionsBOX 4.2 THE INSIDE TRACK: Joanne Rovet/Kelly NashEnvironmental HazardsMaternal CharacteristicsPrevention of Birth DefectsApplying Developmental Themesto Prenatal DevelopmentSummary Key TermsCHAPTER 5 Birth and the Newborn’s Readiness for LifeChildbirth and the Perinatal EnvironmentThe Birth ProcessThe Baby’s ExperienceLabour and Delivery MedicationThe Social Environment Surrounding BirthBOX 5.1 THE INSIDE TRACK: Ann BigelowBirth ComplicationsAnoxiaLow Birth WeightReproductive Risk and Capacity for RecoveryApplying Developmental Themes to BirthThe Newborn’s Readiness for LifeNewborn ReflexesInfant StatesDevelopmental Changes in Infant StatesBOX 5.2 DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES: Sudden Infant Death SyndromeBOX 5.3 APPLYING DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH: Methods of Soothing a Fussy BabySummaryKey TermsCHAPTER 6 Physical Development: The Brain, Body, Motor Skills, and the Beginnings of Sexual DevelopmAn Overview of Maturation and GrowthChanges in Height and WeightChanges in Body ProportionsSkeletal DevelopmentMuscular DevelopmentVariations in Physical DevelopmentDevelopment of the BrainNeural Development and PlasticityBOX 6.1 THE INSIDE TRACK: Dr. Sid SegalowitzBOX 6.2 THE INSIDE TRACK Bryan KolbBrain Differentiation and GrowthMotor DevelopmentBasic Trends in Locomotor DevelopmentFine Motor DevelopmentPsychological Implications of Early Motor DevelopmentBeyond Infancy: Motor Development in ChildhoodBOX 6.3 APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE: Exercise: The Key to a Healthy ChildhoodThe Onset of Puberty: The Early Beginnings of the Physical Transition from Child to AdolescentSexual Maturation in GirlsSexual Maturation in BoysIndividual Differences in and Sexual Maturation: Early OnsetSecular TrendsAre We Maturing Earlier?Does Timing of Puberty Matter?Causes and Correlates of Physical DevelopmentBiological MechanismsEnvironmental InfluencesApplying Developmental Themes to Physical DevelopmentSummaryKey TermsPART III LANGUAGE, LEARNING, AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 7 Early Cognitive Foundations: Sensation, Perception, and LearningEarly Controversies about Sensory and Perceptual DevelopmentNature versus NurtureEnrichment versus DifferentiationResearch Methods Used to Study the Infant’s Sensory and Perceptual ExperiencesThe Preference MethodThe Habituation MethodThe High-Amplitude Sucking MethodThe Evoked Potentials MethodBrain Imaging TechniquesInfant Sensory CapabilitiesHearingBOX 7.1 FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Causes and Consequences of Hearing LossTaste and SmellTouch, Temperature, and PainVisionVisual Perception in InfancyPerception of Patterns and FormsBOX 7.2 THE INSIDE TRACK: Daphne MaurerPerception of Three-Dimensional SpaceIntermodal PerceptionAre the Senses Integrated at Birth?Development of Intermodal PerceptionExplaining Intermodal PerceptionInfant Perception in PerspectiveAnd a Look AheadPerceptual Learning in Childhood: Gibson’s Differentiation TheoryCultural Influences on PerceptionBasic Learning ProcessesHabituation: Early Evidence of Information Processing and MemoryClassical ConditioningOperant (or Instrumental) ConditioningOperant Conditioning in InfancyObservational LearningBOX 7.3 APPLYING DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH: Corporal PunishmentCultural Ideals and AlternativesApplying Developmental Themes to Infant Development, Perception, and LearningSummaryKey termsCHAPTER 8 Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory, Case’s Neo-Piagetian Theory, and Vygotsky’s Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive DevelopmentWhat Is Intelligence?How We Gain Knowledge: Cognitive Schemes and Cognitive ProcessesPiaget’s Stages of Cognitive DevelopmentThe Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 Years)BOX 8.1 DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES: Why Infants Know More about Objects than Piaget AssumedThe Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 Years)and the Emergence of Symbolic ThoughtBOX 8.2 DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES: Play Is Serious BusinessBOX 8.3 THE INSIDE TRACK: Kang LeeBOX 8.4 FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Is Theory of Mind Biologically Programmed? The Special Case of Autism SpeThe Concrete-Operational Stage (7 to 11 Years)The Formal-Operational Stage (11 to 12 Years and Beyond)An Evaluation of Piaget’s TheoryPiaget’s ContributionsChallenges to PiagetCase’s Neo-Piagetian TheoryVygotsky’s Sociocultural PerspectiveThe Role of Culture in Intellectual DevelopmentThe Social Origins of Early Cognitive CompetenciesImplications for EducationThe Role of Language in Cognitive DevelopmentVygotsky in Perspective: Summary and EvaluationApplying Developmental Themes to Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s TheoriesSumming UpSummaryKey TermsCHAPTER 9 Cognitive Development: Information-Processing Perspectives and ConnectionismInformation Flow and the Multistore ModelCognitive Processes and the Multistore ModelDevelopmental Differences in Hardware: Information-Processing CapacityDevelopment of the Short-Term StoreKnowledge Base and Memory DevelopmentDevelopmental Differences in Software: StrategiesRehearsalOrganizationElaborationProduction and Utilization DeficienciesMultiple Strategy and Variable Strategy UseThe Development of Metacognition and Executive Control ProcessesKnowledge and ReasoningBOX 9.1 THE INSIDE TRACK: Ori FriedmanRetention and the Development of AttentionChanges in Attention SpanBOX 9.2 THE INSIDE TRACK: Kimberly Schonert-Reichl Development of Planful Attentional StrategiesSelective Attention: Ignoring Information That Is Clearly IrrelevantCognitive Inhibition: Dismissing Irrelevant InformationMeta-attention: What Do Children Know about Attention?Alternative Models of Memory: Fuzzy Traces and ScriptsFuzzy-Trace TheorySchemasThe Development of Event MemoryOrigins of Event MemoryBOX 9.3 APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE: What Happened to Our Early Childhood Memories? The Social Construction of Autobiographical MemoriesSumming Up Children as EyewitnessesHow Suggestible Are Child Witnesses?Implications for Legal TestimonyThe Development of Analogical ReasoningThe Development of Number and Arithmetic SkillsCounting and Arithmetic StrategiesBOX 9.4 THE INSIDE TRACK: Jeff BisanzEvaluating the Information-Processing PerspectiveBOX 9.5 APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE: Some Educational Implications of Research on Attention and MConnectionist Approaches to Cognitive DevelopmentThe Origins of ConnectionismHow Are Networks Created?How Connectionist Networks WorkConnectionism and DevelopmentApplying Developmental Themes to Information-Processing PerspectivesSummaryKey TermsCHAPTER 10 Intelligence: Measuring Mental PerformanceWhat Is Intelligence?Psychometric Views of IntelligenceThe Modern Information-Processing ViewpointGardner’s Theory of Multiple IntelligencesHow Is Intelligence Measured?The Wechsler ScalesBOX 10.1 CULTURAL INFLUENCES: Making American Tests Valid in CanadaBOX 10.2 THE INSIDE TRACK: Donald H. SaklofskeDistribution of IQ ScoresGroup Tests of Mental PerformanceNewer Approaches to Intelligence TestingAssessing Infant IntelligenceWhat Do Intelligence Tests Predict?IQ as a Predictor of Scholastic AchievementIQ as a Predictor of Health, Adjustment, and Life SatisfactionFactors That Influence IQ ScoresThe Evidence for HeredityThe Evidence for EnvironmentSocial and Cultural Correlates of Intellectual PerformanceHome Environment and IQSocial Class, Culture, Race, and Ethnic Differences in IQWhy Do Groups Differ in Intellectual Performance?Improving Cognitive Performance through Compensatory EducationLong-Term Follow-UpsThe Importance of Parental InvolvementThe Importance of Intervening EarlyBOX 10.3 APPLYING DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH: An Effective Compensatory Intervention for FamiliesCreativity and Special TalentsWhat Is Creativity?The Psychometric PerspectiveThe Multicomponent (or Confluence) PerspectiveSternberg and Lubart’s Investment TheoryApplying Developmental Themes to Intelligence and CreativitySummaryKey TermsCHAPTER 11 Development of Language and Communication SkillsThe Five Components of LanguagePhonologyMorphologySemanticsSyntaxPragmaticsTheories of Language DevelopmentThe Learning (or Empiricist) PerspectiveThe Nativist PerspectiveBOX 11.1 FOCUS ON RESEARCH: On the Invention of Language by ChildrenThe Interactionist PerspectiveThe Prelinguistic Period: Before LanguageEarly Reactions to SpeechProducing Sounds: The Infant’s Prelinguistic VocalizationsWhat Do Prelinguistic Infants Know about Language and Communication?The Holophrastic Period: One Word at a TimeEarly Semantics: Building a VocabularyBOX 11.2 THE INSIDE TRACK: Janet F. WerkerAttaching Meaning to WordsWhen a Word Is More than a WordThe Telegraphic Period: From Holophrases to Simple SentencesA Semantic Analysis of Telegraphic SpeechThe Pragmatics of Early SpeechBOX 11.3 APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE: Learning a Gestural LanguageLanguage Learning during the Preschool PeriodGrammatical DevelopmentSemantic DevelopmentDevelopment of Pragmatics and Communication SkillsLanguage Learning during Middle ChildhoodLater Syntactic DevelopmentSemantics and Metalinguistic AwarenessFurther Development of Communication SkillsBilingualism: Learning More than One LanguageBOX 11.4 THE INSIDE TRACK: Johanne ParadisBOX 11.5 THE INSIDE TRACK: Ellen BialystokApplying Developmental Themes to Language AcquisitionSummaryKey TermsPART IV SOCIAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENTCHAPTER 12 Emotional Development, Temperament, and AttachmentEmotional DevelopmentDisplaying Emotions: The Development (and Control) of Emotional ExpressionsRecognizing and Interpreting EmotionsEmotions and Early Social DevelopmentTemperament and DevelopmentHereditary and Environmental Influences on TemperamentStability of TemperamentEarly Temperamental Profiles and Later DevelopmentAttachment and DevelopmentAttachments as Reciprocal RelationshipsHow Do Infants Become Attached?Individual Differences in Attachment QualityFactors That Influence Attachment SecurityAttachment and Later DevelopmentBOX 12.2 THE INSIDE TRACK: Ellen MossApplying Developmental Themes to Emotional Development, Temperament, and AttachmentSummary Key TermsCHAPTER 13 Development of the Self and Social CognitionDevelopment of the Self-ConceptSelf-Differentiation in InfancySelf-Recognition in InfancyContributors to Self-RecognitionSocial and Emotional Consequences of Self-RecognitionWho Am I? Responses of Preschool ChildrenConceptions of Self in Middle ChildhoodWho Am I to Be? Identity as an Extension of Self-ConceptSelf-esteem: The evaluative Component of SelfOrigins and Development of Self-EsteemBOX 13.1 THE INSIDE TRACK: Shelley HymelBOX 13.2 THE INSIDE TRACK: Joanne CummingsSocial Contributors to Self-EsteemDevelopment of Achievement Motivation and Academic Self-ConceptEarly Origins of Achievement MotivationAchievement Motivation during Middle ChildhoodBeyond Achievement Motivation: Development of Achievement AttributionsThe Other Side of Social Cognition: Knowing about OthersAge Trends in Person PerceptionBOX 13.3 DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES: Racial Categorization and Racism in Young Children Theories of Social-Cognitive DevelopmentApplying Developmental Themes to the Development of the Self and Social CognitionSummaryKey TermsCHAPTER 14 Sex Differences and Similarities, and Gender-Role DevelopmentDefining Sex and GenderCategorizing Males and Females: Gender-Role StandardsBOX 14.1 DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES: What Traits Characterize Males and Females? Some Facts and Fictions about Sex DifferencesActual Psychological Differences between the SexesCultural MythsDo Cultural Myths Contribute to Sex Differences in Ability (and Vocational Opportunity)?Developmental Trends in Gender TypingDevelopment of Gender IdentityDevelopment of Gender-Role StereotypesBOX 14.2 THE INSIDE TRACK: Lisa SerbinDevelopment of Gender-Typed BehaviourTheories of Gender Typing and Gender-Role DevelopmentEvolutionary TheoryA Biosocial Overview of Gender Differentiation and DevelopmentBOX 14.3 FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Is Biology Destiny?Social-Learning TheoryKohlberg’s Cognitive-Developmental TheoryGender Schema TheoryAn Integrative TheoryPsychological Androgyny: A Prescription for the 21st Century?Do Androgynous People Really Exist?Are There Advantages to Being Androgynous?Applications: On Changing Gender-Role Attitudes and BehaviourBOX 14.4 APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE: Combating Gender Stereotypes with Cognitive InterventionsApplying Developmental Themes to Sex Differences and Gender-Role DevelopmentSummaryKey Terms CHAPTER 15 Moral Development and AggressionDefining the Moral DomainMoral Foundations TheoryTuriel’s Social Domain TheoryThe Anthropologist ViewEvolutionary Roots of Morality in Young ChildrenEmpathy and CompassionSocial Preference for HelpfulnessProsocial HelpingBeyond NatureCultural Influences on Sympathy and Prosocial BehaviourRule Internalization in the Context of Close RelationshipsPositive Reinforcement in the Context of Close RelationshipsBOX 15.1 APPlYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE: How Should I Discipline My Children?Social-Modelling InfluencesMoral Reasoning DevelopmentPiaget’s Theory of Moral DevelopmentUpdates to Piaget’s TheoryKohlberg’s Theory of Moral DevelopmentEmpirical Support for Kohlberg’s TheoryCriticisms of Kohlberg’s ApproachThe Development of AggressionAggressive behaviour in Infancy and ChildhoodAggressiveness as a Trait: How Stable Is It?Sex Differences in Aggressive BehaviourAggression as a Behavioural ProblemDodge’s Social Information-ProcessingTheory of AggressionBOX 15.2 THE INSIDE TRACK: Tina Malti Social and Cultural and Influences on AggressionCoercive Home Environments: Breeding Grounds for AggressionMethods of Controlling Aggression in Young ChildrenApplying Developmental Themes to Moral Development and AggressionSummary Key TermsPART V THE ECOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENTALCHAPTER 16 The FamilyUnderstanding the FamilyThe Family as a Social SystemFamilies Are Developing SystemsParental Socialization during ChildhoodTwo Major Dimensions of ParentingFour Patterns of ParentingSocial Class and Ethnic Variations in Child RearingThe Influence of Siblings and Sibling RelationshipsChanges in the Family System when a New Baby ArrivesSibling Relationships over the Course of ChildhoodBOX 16.1 THE INSIDE TRACK: Hildy RossPositive Contributions of Sibling RelationshipsCharacteristics of Only ChildrenDiversity in Family LifeAdoptive FamiliesDonor Insemination (DI) FamiliesGay and Lesbian FamiliesFamily Conflict and DivorceRemarriage and Blended FamiliesBOX 16.2 APPLYING DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH: Smoothing the Rocky Road to Recovery from a DivorceDown the Hidden Side of Family Life: The Problem of Child AbuseHow Prevalent Is Child Abuse and Neglect?Is There a Typical Profile of an Abuser?Who Is Abused?Consequences of Abuse and NeglectBOX 16.3 THE INSIDE TRACK: David WolfeHow Can We Reduce the Prevalence of Abuse and Neglect? What Works?Applying Developmental Themes to Family Life, Parenting, and SiblingsSummary Key Terms CHAPTER 17 Beyond the Family Context: Peers, Schools, and MediaPeers as Agents of SocializationWho Is a Peer and What Functions Do Peers Serve?The Development of Peer SociabilityPeer Acceptance and PopularityChildren and Their FriendsBOX 17.1 THE INSIDE TRACK: William BukowskiBOX 17.2 DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Benefits of ChumshipsBOX 17.3 APPLYING DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH: On Improving the Social Skills of Unpopular ChildrenParents and Peers as Influence AgentsIncreasing Conformity to PeersSchool as a Socialization AgentHow Well Educated Are Our Children? A Cross-Cultural ComparisonBOX 17.4 APPLYING RESEARCH TO YOUR LIFE: Should Preschoolers Attend School?Determinants of Effective SchoolingDo Our Schools Meet the Needs of All of Our Children?Effects of Media Technologies on Child DevelopmentDevelopment of Media LiteracySome Potentially Undesirable Effects of Screen Media TechnologiesSome Desirable Developmental Outcomes from Screen Media TechnologiesComputer Technologies and Cognitive DevelopmentThe Added Impact of the InternetApplying Developmental Themes to Extrafamilial Contextual Forces in Child DevelopmentSummaryKey TermsGLOSSARYREFERENCESNAME INDEXSUBJECT INDEXBlank Page