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- Full title: Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology, 10th Edition
- Edition: 10th
- Copyright year: 2020
- Publisher: Cengage Learning
- Author: Andrew Karmen
- ISBN: 9780357020920, 9780357020920
- Format: PDF
Description of Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology, 10th Edition:
A first in the field when initially published and now a true classic, CRIME VICTIMS: AN INTRODUCTION TO VICTIMOLOGY, Tenth Edition offers the most comprehensive and balanced exploration of victimology available today. The author examines the victims’ plight, carefully placing statistics from the FBI’s Uniform Crime Report and Bureau of Justice Statistics National Crime Victimization Survey in context. At the same time, he “”humanizes”” victims’ stories through compelling case studies. The text systematically investigates how victims are currently handled by the criminal justice system, analyzes the goals of the victims’ rights movement, and discusses what the future is likely to hold. This Tenth Edition presents current coverage of the seriousness of intimate partner violence, child abuse, sexual assaults in the U.S. military, acquaintance rapes on college campuses, shootings on campuses, whether arming for self-protection is an effective strategy, and similar high-profile issues. It also includes new information about “”survivorology”” and “”bystanderology”” as well as new material on practical issues facing victims.Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Table of Contents of Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology, 10th Edition PDF ebook:
Title PageCopyright PageBrief ContentsContentsPREFACEChapter 1: What Is VictimologyAn Introduction to VictimologyStudying Victimization ScientificallyFocusing on the Plight of Crime VictimsWhat Kinds of Studies Do Victimologists Carry OutWhat Victimology Isn’tVictimology versus Detective WorkVictimology versus Victim ServicesVictimology versus Victimism: A Political Point of ViewComparing Victimology to CriminologyThe Many Parallels between Criminology and VictimologySome Differences and Issues about BoundariesDiffering Political Approaches within the DisciplineWhy Study VictimologyWhy Place Such an Emphasis on Carrying Out ResearchDifferent Types of Research Studies in VictimologyDifferent Disciplinary Approaches when Researching Victim IssuesSometimes Research Findings Can Be SurprisingHow to Structure a Victimological InvestigationSummaryKey Terms Defined in the GlossaryQuestions for Discussion and DebateCritical Thinking QuestionsSuggested Research ProjectsChapter 2: The Rediscovery of Crime VictimsThe Discovery, Decline, and Rediscovery of Crime VictimsThe Process of RediscoveryVictimology Contributes to the Rediscovery ProcessRediscovering Exemplary Behavior under Extremely Difficult CircumstancesRediscovering Survivors Whose Resilience after a Vicious Attack Is Inspiring”Survivorology”: Toward a More Upbeat Focus within VictimologyRediscovering the Importance of Bystanders Who InterveneOther Groups Propel the Rediscovery Process ForwardSocial Movements: Taking Up the Victims’ CauseElected Officials: Proposing and Enacting Pro-Victim LegislationThe News Media: Portraying the Victims’ PlightCommercial Interests: Selling Security Products and Services to VictimsRediscovering Additional Groups of VictimsThe Rediscovery Process in Action, Step by StepStage One: Calling Attention to an Overlooked ProblemStage Two: Making Progress, Implementing ReformsStage Three: Emergence of an Opposition and Development of Resistance to Further ChangesStage Four: Research Findings Generate Useful EvidenceSummaryKey Terms Defined in the GlossaryQuestions for Discussion and DebateCritical Thinking QuestionsSuggested Research ProjectsChapter 3: Victimization in the United States: An OverviewVictimization across the Nation: The Big PictureMaking Sense of StatisticsThe Two Official Sources of DataFacts and Figures in the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Report (UCR)Facts and Figures in the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)Comparing the UCR and the NCVSA First Glance at the Big Picture: Estimates of the Number of New Crime Victims Each YearA Second Look at the Big Picture: Watching the FBI’s Crime ClockDelving Deeper into the Big Picture: Examining Victimization RatesTapping into the UCR and the NCVS to Fill in the Details of the Big PictureSearching for Changes in the Big Picture: Detecting Trends in Interpersonal Violence and TheftTaking a Longer View: Murders in the United States over the Past CenturyThe Rise and Fall of Murder Rates Since 1900Putting Crime into Perspective: The Chances of Dying Violentlyor from Other CausesSummaryKey Terms Defined in the GlossaryQuestions for Discussion and DebateCritical Thinking QuestionsSuggested Research ProjectsChapter 4: A Closer Look at the Victims of Interpersonal Crimes of Violence and TheftAddressing Some Troubling QuestionsIdentifying Differential Risks: Which Groups Suffer More Often Than OthersFocusing on Murders and Near-Death ExperiencesWhere It Is Much Safer or Far More Dangerous: Making International ComparisonsMurder Rates in Various Big Cities around the CountryA Victimological Investigation of Murders in the United StatesWho Gets Killed by Whom? How, Where, and WhyDifferential Risks: Who Faces the Gravest Threats of Being MurderedNear-Death Experiences: Trends in Aggravated Assault RatesFocusing on RobberiesRobbers and the People They Prey UponRobberies: Who, How Often, How, Where, WhenChanges over Time in Robbery RatesChecking Out Whether More Robberies Are Turning into MurdersDifferential Risks: Which Groups Get Robbed the Most and the Least OftenFocusing on BurglariesTrends and Patterns in BurglariesDifferential Risks: Whose Homes Are More Likely to Be BurglarizedFocusing on Motor Vehicle TheftStealing Cars for Fun and ProfitTrends in Motor Vehicle TheftDifferential Risks: Which Motorists Should Be Most Concerned When ParkingPredicting the Chances of Becoming a Victim Someday: Projecting Cumulative RisksSummaryKey Terms Defined in the GlossaryQuestions for Discussion and DebateCritical Thinking QuestionsSuggested Research ProjectsChapter 5: The Ongoing Controversy over Shared ResponsibilityHow Some Victims Contribute to the Crime ProblemRepeat and Chronic Victims: Learning from Past MistakesThe Entire Spectrum of Possibilities: Recognizing Complete Innocence and Full ResponsibilityWho or What Is to Blame for Specific IncidentsWhat Is Victim BlamingWhat Is Victim DefendingWhat Is System BlamingMistakes Individuals Make: Victim FacilitationHow Many Identity Thefts Were Victim-FacilitatedHow Many Burglaries Were Victim-FacilitatedHow Many Vehicle Thefts Were Victim-FacilitatedVictim Precipitation and ProvocationHow Many Violent Crimes Were Precipitated or ProvokedTranscending Victim Blaming and Victim Defending: System BlamingBlaming the System for Violent and Property CrimesBlaming the System for the Problem of Identity TheftsThe Importance of Determining Responsibility in the Criminal Justice ProcessTheorizing about Risk Factors: Figuring Out Why Certain Groups Suffer More Often than OthersApplying Deterrence Theory to VictimsWhy Various Groups Experience Differential Risks: Routine Activities and Specific LifestylesSome Victims Were Criminals: The Equivalent Group ExplanationWhat’s the Difference between Crime Prevention and Victimization PreventionReducing Risks: How Safe Is Safe EnoughAmbivalence about Risk TakingSummaryKey Terms Defined in the GlossaryQuestions for Discussion and DebateCritical Thinking QuestionsSuggested Research ProjectsChapter 6: Victims and the PoliceVictims Interacting with the Criminal Justice System: Cooperation or ConflictWhat Would Be IdealWhat Do Victims Want: Punishment? Treatment? RestitutionMake “Them” SufferMake “Them” Get TreatmentMake “Them” Pay for Losses and ExpensesVictims and the PoliceReporting IncidentsResponding QuicklyHandling Victims with CareChallenging the Victim’s Version of EventsInvestigating Complaints and Solving CrimesArresting SuspectsRecovering Stolen PropertyMeasuring Progress toward a Victim-Oriented Police DepartmentSummaryKey Terms Defined in the GlossaryQuestions for Discussion and DebateCritical Thinking QuestionsSuggested Research ProjectsChapter 7: Victims’ Rights and the Criminal Justice SystemVictims and the Juvenile Justice SystemToward Greater Formal Legal Rights within the Criminal Justice SystemThe Quest for a Constitutional Amendment Guaranteeing Victims’ RightsThe Achievements of the Victims’ Rights MovementRights Gained at the Expense of OffendersRights Gained at the Expense of the Criminal Justice SystemRights Gained at the Expense of Offenders, the System, or BothVictims and ProsecutorsAssisting Victims and Other Witnesses for the StateProtecting Victims Who Serve as Witnesses for the ProsecutionDismissing Charges and Rejecting CasesNegotiating PleasVictims and Defense AttorneysPostponing HearingsCross-Examining Witnesses during TrialsVictims and JudgesGranting BailSentencing OffendersAppealing to the Supreme CourtVictims and JuriesVictims and Corrections OfficialsKeeping Track of Offenders and Receiving Reimbursement from ThemInfluencing Parole Board DecisionsAnd Justice for AllRecognizing “Second-Class” TreatmentSummaryKey Terms Defined in the GlossaryQuestions for Discussion and DebateCritical Thinking QuestionsSuggested Research ProjectsChapter 8: Victimized ChildrenThe Ongoing Debate between Maximalists and MinimalistsMaximalists versus MinimalistsMissing ChildrenThe Rediscovery of the Plight of Kidnapped ChildrenFears and Confusion Prevails in the Absence of DataEstimates of the Incidence and Seriousness of the Disappearance ProblemHunting for Children Who Have VanishedThe Amber Alert SystemProtecting Children from KidnappersPhysically and Sexually Abused ChildrenThe Rediscovery of Child AbuseHow Children SufferEstimates of the Incidence, Prevalence, and Seriousness of Child AbuseMaximalist versus Minimalist Approaches to the Seriousness of the ProblemDifferential Risks Children Face of Being MaltreatedThe Suffering of Sexually Abused ChildrenThe Furor over Recalling Repressed Memories of Childhood Sexual AbuseStrange Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse during RitualsAbused Children and Legal ProceedingsTaking into Account the Best Interests of the ChildThe Credibility of Children as WitnessesDevising Child-Friendly PracticesProactive versus Reactive StrategiesAdditional Forms of Exploitation and Mistreatment of Young PeopleSibling AbuseAbuse of Adolescents by ParentsStatutory Rape of MinorsSummaryKey Terms Defined in the GlossaryQuestions for Discussion and DebateCritical Thinking QuestionsSuggested Research ProjectsChapter 9: Victims of Violence by Lovers and Family MembersViolence within Romantic Relationships and FamiliesThe Rediscovery of “Wife Beating”Victim Blaming versus Victim DefendingHow Victims SufferEstimates of the Incidence, Prevalence, and Seriousness of Intimate Partner ViolenceRecognizing Warning SignsFatal Attractions: Slayings of Intimate PartnersExplaining Intimate Partner Violence: Why Doesn’t She Just Leave HimEnabling Victims Who Feel Trapped to EscapeBattered Women and the Criminal Justice System: Violence Is Violenceor Is It?The Rediscovery of Battered Husbands and BoyfriendsVictim Provocation and Murder: When Is the Slaying of a Wife Beater Justified ?Intimate Partner Homicides and the Criminal Justice SystemArguments Stressing that the Brutal Man Did Not Deserve to DieArguments Emphasizing that the Brutal Man Provoked the Lethal ResponseLegal QuestionsThe Rediscovery of Other Victims of BeatingsDating ViolenceAbuse of Parents by AdolescentsElder AbuseBattering within Same-Sex RelationshipsPreventing Domestic ViolenceSummaryKey Terms Defined in the GlossaryQuestions for Discussion and DebateCritical Thinking QuestionsSuggested Research ProjectsChapter 10: Victims of Rapes and Other Sexual AssaultsSexual Assaults and Rapes: The Social ReactionThe Rediscovery of the Plight of Rape VictimsThe Consequences of Being Sexually AssaultedThe Problem of Pregnancies Arising from RapesThe Controversy Surrounding Questions of Shared Responsibility”Real Rapes” as Compared to “Acquaintance Rapes” and “Date Rapes”Victim-Blaming ViewpointsVictim-Defending PerspectivesEstimates of the Incidence, Prevalence, and Seriousness of Rape and Sexual Assault?Maximalist PerspectivesMinimalist PerspectivesWho Faces the Gravest Dangers? Differential Risks of Being Sexually Assaulted and RapedHow the Criminal Justice System Handles Rape VictimsThe Controversy over Unfounded AccusationsThe Accuser versus the AccusedUnwanted Publicity and Negative Media PortrayalsRape Shield LawsIssues Surrounding Force and ResistanceThe Need for CorroborationRape Victims and the PoliceRape Victims and ProsecutorsCrisis Centers: Providing Emergency AssistanceThe Rediscovery of More Victims of Rapes and Sexual AssaultsDrug-Facilitated Sexual AssaultsSexual Assaults on CampusMaximalist versus Minimalist PerspectivesSexual Assaults within the MilitarySexual Assaults between MalesSexual Assaults behind BarsSexual Assaults within MarriagesThree Competing Approaches to Reducing the Problem of Rape and Sexual AssaultSummaryKey Terms Defined in the GlossaryQuestions for Discussion and DebateCritical Thinking QuestionsSuggested Research ProjectsChapter 11: Additional Groups of Victims with Special ProblemsParticular Groups that Face Special Problems which Require Special SolutionsPassengers Harmed while on Cruise ShipsIndividuals Menaced by StalkersStalking: A New Word for an Old ProblemThe Scope of the ProblemCyberstalking: A New Word for a New ProblemVictims of Crimes Committed at SchoolThreats Facing Middle and High School StudentsThreats Facing College StudentsThe Controversy over Hazing on CampusCasualties of Workplace ViolenceDifferential Risks of Being Wounded or Murdered while on the JobTargets of Hate CrimesRediscovering a Very Old ProblemHow Many Outbursts of HatredPatterns and Trends in VictimOffender RelationshipsCriminal Justice System ReformsViolence between PrisonersDiscovering Differential Risks of Getting Slain behind BarsLaw Enforcement Officers Injured and Slain in the Line of DutyWho, Where, When, and How?Showing SolidarityCasualties of Politically Inspired Violence and TerrorismAssessing the Threat of TerrorismAssistance and RecoverySummaryKey Terms Defined in the GlossaryQuestions for Discussion and DebateCritical Thinking QuestionsSuggested Research ProjectsChapter 12: Repaying VictimsThe Costs of VictimizationsGaining Restitution from OffendersBack to BasicsThe Rise, Fall, and Rediscovery of RestitutionDivergent Goals, Clashing PhilosophiesOpportunities to Make RestitutionObstacles Undermining RestitutionWinning Judgments in Civil CourtThe Revival of Interest in Civil LawsuitsThe Litigation ProcessCollecting Damages from Third PartiesAchieving Reimbursements from Insurance CompaniesCrime InsurancePatterns of Loss, Recovery, and ReimbursementRecovering Losses through Victim Compensation ProgramsThe History of Victim Compensation by GovernmentsThe Debate over Compensation in the United StatesHow Programs Operate: Similarities and DifferencesMonitoring and Evaluating Compensation ProgramsConfiscating Profits from Notorious CriminalsTrying to Make Sure that Crime Doesn’t PaySummaryKey Terms Defined in the GlossaryQuestions for Discussion and DebateCritical Thinking QuestionsSuggested Research ProjectsChapter 13: Victims in the Twenty-First Century: Alternative DirectionsToward Countering Criminal Violence with Forceful Responses: Would Victims Be Better Off If They WeThe Legitimate Use of Force in Self-DefenseJustifiable Homicides Carried Out by Victims and by Law Enforcement OfficersAcquiring Firearms for Self-ProtectionGun Laws Directly Affecting VictimsGun Ownership in the United StatesArguments Advanced by Proponents of Arming for Self-ProtectionCounterarguments Advanced by Critics Opposed to Arming for Self- ProtectionThe Potential Contributions of Victimological InvestigationsToward Restorative JusticeA Brief History of Restorative JusticeThe Peacemaking Process: How Reconciliation Programs WorkEvaluating Efforts at ReconciliationPros and Cons from the Victim’s Point of ViewThe Future of Restorative JusticeSummaryKey Terms Defined in the GlossaryQuestions for Discussion and DebateCritical Thinking QuestionsSuggested Research ProjectsGLOSSARYREFERENCESNAME INDEXSUBJECT INDEX