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- Full title: American Government & Politics Today, Enhanced, 18th Edition
- Edition: 18th
- Copyright year: 2020
- Publisher: Cengage Learning
- Author: Lynne E. Ford; Barbara A. Bardes; Steffen W. Schmidt
- ISBN: 9780357020647, 9780357020647
- Format: PDF
Description of American Government & Politics Today, Enhanced, 18th Edition:
Ford/Bardes/Schmidt/Shelley’s American Government and Politics Today is known nationwide for its balanced, unbiased and modern coverage of constitutional, governmental, political, social and economic structures and their processes. Thoroughly revised and updated, the Enhanced 18th edition includes expansive coverage of the 2018 elections, gender issues and the role of social media in politics. Engaging examples of politics, politicians and policies bring chapter concepts to life, while “”Politics in Practice”” features in each chapter spotlight people who have taken on an issue and made a difference. Transforming you from observer to participant, American Government and Politics Today equips you with the knowledge and tools to make informed choices and start playing an active role in the decision-making process.Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Table of Contents of American Government & Politics Today, Enhanced, 18th Edition PDF ebook:
Half Title pageTitle pageCopyright pageBrief ContentsDetailed ContentsA Letter to InstructorsA Letter to StudentsResourcesAcknowledgmentsReviewersAbout the AuthorsCareer Opportunites: Political SciencePART I: The American SystemCHAPTER 1: One RepublicTwo Americas?Politics and GovernmentWhy Is Government Necessary?Fundamental ValuesLibertyOrder and the Rule of LawIndividualismEqualityPropertyWhy Choose Democracy?Direct Democracy as a ModelThe Limits of Direct DemocracyA Democratic RepublicPrinciples of Democratic GovernmentWho Really Rules in America?MajoritarianismElitismPluralismPolitical IdeologiesThe Traditional Political SpectrumIn the Middle: Liberalism and ConservatismThe Difficulty of Defining Liberalism and ConservatismLiberalismConservatismLibertarianismThe Challenge of ChangeDemographic Change in a Democratic RepublicEthnic ChangeGlobalizationThe Technology RevolutionEnvironmental ChangeCHAPTER 2: The ConstitutionThe Colonial BackgroundSeparatists, the Mayflower, and the CompactMore Colonies, More GovernmentBritish Restrictions and Colonial GrievancesThe Colonial ResponseThe First Continental CongressThe Second Continental CongressDeclaring IndependenceThe Resolution of IndependenceJuly 4, 1776The Declaration of IndependenceUniversal TruthsNatural Rights and a Social ContractThe Rise of RepublicanismThe Articles of Confederation: The First Form of GovernmentAccomplishments under the ArticlesWeaknesses of the ArticlesShays’ Rebellion and the Need for Revision of the ArticlesDrafting the ConstitutionWho Were the Delegates?The Working EnvironmentFactions among the DelegatesPoliticking and CompromisesThe Virginia PlanThe New Jersey PlanThe “Great Compromise”The Three-Fifths CompromiseOther IssuesWorking toward Final AgreementThe Madisonian ModelSeparation of PowersThe Madisonian ModelChecks and BalancesThe ExecutiveA Federal RepublicThe Final DocumentThe Difficult Road to RatificationThe Federalists Push for RatificationThe Federalist PapersThe Anti-Federalist ResponseThe March to the FinishDid the Majority of Americans Support the Constitution?State Ratifying ConventionsSupport Was Probably WidespreadThe Bill of RightsA “Bill of Limits”No Explicit Limits on State Government PowersAltering the Constitution: The Formal Amendment ProcessMany Amendments Are Proposed; Few Are AcceptedLimits on RatificationThe National Convention ProvisionInformal Methods of Constitutional ChangeCongressional LegislationPresidential ActionsJudicial ReviewNot a Novel ConceptAllows the Court to Adapt the ConstitutionInterpretation, Custom, and UsageCHAPTER 3: FederalismThree Systems of GovernmentA Unitary SystemA Confederal SystemA Federal SystemWhy Federalism?A Practical Constitutional SolutionBenefits for the United StatesAllowance for Many Political SubculturesArguments against FederalismThe Constitutional Basis for American FederalismPowers of the National GovernmentThe Necessary and Proper ClauseInherent PowersPowers of the State GovernmentsConcurrent PowersProhibited PowersThe Supremacy ClauseVertical and Horizontal Checks and BalancesInterstate RelationsThe Full Faith and Credit ClausePrivileges and ImmunitiesInterstate ExtraditionDefining Constitutional PowersThe Early YearsMcCulloch v. Maryland (1819)The Constitutional QuestionsMarshall’s DecisionGibbons v. Ogden (1824)The Background of the CaseMarshall’s RulingStates’ Rights and the Resort to Civil WarThe Shift Back to States’ RightsWar and the Growth of the National GovernmentThe War EffortThe Civil War AmendmentsThe Continuing Dispute over the Division of PowerDual Federalism and the Retreat of National AuthorityA Return to Normal ConditionsThe Role of the Supreme CourtThe New Deal and Cooperative FederalismThe “New Deal”The End of Dual FederalismCooperative FederalismMethods of Implementing Cooperative FederalismCategorical GrantsFeeling the PressureThe Strings Attached to Federal GrantsBlock GrantsFederal MandatesThe Politics of FederalismWhat Has National Authority Accomplished?Civil Rights and the War on PovertyWhy Would the States Favor the Status Quo?Federalism Becomes a Partisan IssueThe “New Federalism”New Judicial FederalismFederalism in the Twenty-First CenturyFederalism and the Supreme Court TodayReining in the Commerce PowerState Sovereignty and the Eleventh AmendmentTenth Amendment IssuesFederalism and State Immigration PolicyOther Federalism CasesPART II: Civil Rights and Civil LibertiesCHAPTER 4: Civil LibertiesCivil Liberties and the Bill of RightsExtending the Bill of Rights to State GovernmentsIncorporation of the Fourteenth AmendmentFreedom of ReligionThe Separation of Church and StateThe Establishment ClauseAid to Church-Related SchoolsA Change in the Court’s PositionSchool VouchersThe Issue of School PrayerEngel v. VitaleThe Debate over School Prayer ContinuesPrayer Outside the ClassroomThe Ten CommandmentsForbidding the Teaching of EvolutionReligious SpeechPublic Expression of ReligionBlasphemy and Free Speech RightsThe Free Exercise ClauseThe Religious Freedom Restoration ActFreedom of ExpressionNo Prior RestraintWikiLeaks, Edward Snowden, and Classified Information on the InternetThe Protection of Symbolic SpeechThe Protection of Commercial SpeechPermitted Restrictions on ExpressionClear and Present DangerModifications to the Clear and Present Danger RuleUnprotected Speech: ObscenityDefinitional ProblemsProtecting ChildrenPornography on the InternetShould “Virtual” Pornography Be Deemed a Crime?Unprotected Speech: SlanderCampus SpeechStudent Activity FeesCampus Speech and Behavior CodesHate Speech on the InternetFreedom of the PressDefamation in WritingA Free Press versus a Fair Trial: Gag OrdersFilms, Radio, and TVThe Right to Assemble and to Petition the GovernmentOnline AssemblyMore Liberties under Scrutiny: Matters of PrivacyInformation PrivacyPrivacy Rights and AbortionRoe v. WadeThe Controversy ContinuesPrivacy Rights and the “Right to Die”What If No Living Will Exists?Physician-Assisted SuicidePrivacy Rights versus Security IssuesThe USA PATRIOT ActCivil Liberties ConcernsThe Great Balancing Act: The Rights of the Accused versus the Rights of SocietyExtending the Rights of the AccusedMiranda v. ArizonaExceptions to the Miranda RuleVideo Recording of InterrogationsThe Exclusionary RuleThe Death PenaltyCruel and Unusual Punishment?The Death Penalty TodayCHAPTER 5: Civil RightsAfrican Americans and the Consequences of Slavery in the United StatesEnding ServitudeThe Civil Rights Acts of 1865 to 1875The Limitations of the Civil Rights LawsThe Civil Rights CasesPlessy v. Ferguson: Separate but EqualVoting BarriersExtralegal Methods of Enforcing White SupremacyThe End of the Separate-but-Equal DoctrineBrown v. Board of Education of Topeka”With All Deliberate Speed”Reactions to School IntegrationIntegration TodayThe Resurgence of Minority SchoolsThe Civil Rights MovementKing’s Philosophy of NonviolenceNonviolent DemonstrationsMarches and DemonstrationsAnother ApproachBlack PowerThe Escalation of the Civil Rights MovementModern Civil Rights LegislationThe Civil Rights Act of 1964The Voting Rights Act of 1965Urban RiotsThe Civil Rights Act of 1968 and Other Housing-Reform LegislationConsequences of Civil Rights LegislationPolitical Representation by African AmericansThe U.S. Census and Civil RightsLingering Social and Economic DisparitiesRace-Conscious or Post-Racial Society?#BlackLivesMatterRace and Confederate SymbolsWomen’s Campaign for Equal RightsEarly Women’s Political MovementsWomen’s Suffrage AssociationsThe Second Wave of the Women’s MovementThe Equal Rights AmendmentThree-State StrategyChallenging Gender Discrimination in the Courts and LegislaturesWomen in Politics TodayGender-Based Discrimination in the WorkplaceTitle VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964Sexual HarassmentWage DiscriminationThe Equal Pay Act of 1963Voting Rights and the YoungImmigration, Latinos, and Civil RightsMexican American Civil RightsThe Continued Influx of ImmigrantsIllegal ImmigrationCitizenshipAccommodating Diversity with Bilingual EducationAffirmative ActionThe Bakke CaseFurther Limits on Affirmative ActionState Ballot InitiativesMaking Amends for Past Discrimination through ReparationsSpecial Protection for Older AmericansSecuring Rights for Persons with DisabilitiesThe Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990Limiting the Scope and Applicability of the ADAThe Rights and Status of Gays and LesbiansProgress in the Gay and Lesbian Rights MovementState and Local Laws Targeting Gays and LesbiansGays and Lesbians in the MilitarySame-Sex MarriageDefense of Marriage ActA Short History of State Recognition of Gay MarriagesShift in Public Opinion for Marriage EqualityPART III: People and PoliticsCHAPTER 6: Public Opinion and Political SocializationDefining Public OpinionPublic Opinion and PolicymakingHow Public Opinion Is Formed: Political SocializationModels of Political SocializationThe Family and the Social EnvironmentEducation as a Source of Political SocializationPeers and Peer Group InfluenceOpinion Leaders’ InfluencePolitical Change and Political SocializationThe Impact of the MediaThe Influence of Political EventsPolitical Preferences and Voting BehaviorDemographic InfluencesEducationThe Influence of Economic StatusReligious Influence: DenominationReligious Influence: Religiosity and EvangelicalsThe Influence of Race and EthnicityThe Gender GapReasons for the Gender GapGeographic RegionMeasuring Public OpinionThe History of Opinion PollsSampling TechniquesRepresentative SamplingThe Principle of RandomnessProblems with PollsSampling ErrorsPoll QuestionsPush PollsTechnology, Public Opinion, and the Political ProcessPublic Opinion and the Political ProcessPolitical Culture and Public OpinionPolitical Trust and Support for the Political SystemPublic Opinion about GovernmentCHAPTER 7: Interest GroupsInterest Groups: A Natural PhenomenonInterest Groups and Social MovementsWhy So Many?Why Do Americans Join Interest Groups?IncentivesSolidary IncentivesMaterial IncentivesPurposive IncentivesTypes of Interest GroupsEconomic Interest GroupsBusiness Interest GroupsAgricultural Interest GroupsLabor Interest GroupsPublic-Employee UnionsInterest Groups of ProfessionalsThe Unorganized PoorEnvironmental GroupsPublic-Interest GroupsNader OrganizationsOther Public-Interest GroupsOther Interest GroupsForeign GovernmentsWhat Makes an Interest Group Powerful?Size and ResourcesLeadershipCohesivenessInterest Group StrategiesDirect TechniquesLobbying TechniquesThe Ratings GameBuilding AlliancesCampaign AssistanceIndirect TechniquesGenerating Public PressureUsing Constituents as LobbyistsUnconventional Forms of PressureRegulating LobbyistsThe Results of the 1946 ActThe Reforms of 1995Lobbying ScandalsInterest Groups and Representative DemocracyInterest Group InfluenceCHAPTER 8: Political PartiesWhat Is a Political Party and What Do Parties Do?Getting Organized: The Three Components of a PartyParty OrganizationThe National ConventionThe State Party OrganizationLocal Party OrganizationsThe Party-in-GovernmentDivided GovernmentThe Limits of Party UnityParty PolarizationA History of Political Parties in the United StatesThe First-Party System: The Development of Parties, 17891828The Era of Good FeelingsThe Second-Party System: Democrats and Whigs, 18281860The Third-Party System: Republicans’ Rise to Power and the Civil War, 18601896″Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion”The Triumph of the RepublicansThe Fourth-Party System: The Progressive Interlude and Republican Dominance, 18961932The Fifth-Party System: The New Deal and Democratic Dominance, 19321968A Post-Party System Era, 1968Present?Red State, Blue StatePartisan Trends in the Elections of 2012 and 2016The Two Major U.S. Parties TodayWho Belongs to Each Political Party?Differences in Party Policy PrioritiesThe 2012 ElectionsShaping the Parties for 2014 and 2016The 2016 Primaries and the Rise of “Outsiders”Why Has the Two-Party System Endured?The Historical Foundations of the Two-Party SystemPolitical Socialization and Practical ConsiderationsThe Winner-Take-All Electoral SystemProportional RepresentationState and Federal Laws Favoring the Two PartiesThe Role of Minor Parties in U.S. PoliticsIdeological Third PartiesSplinter PartiesThe Impact of Minor PartiesInfluencing the Major PartiesAffecting the Outcome of an ElectionMechanisms of Political ChangeRealignmentRealignment: The Myth of DominanceRealignment: The Myth of PredictabilityIs Realignment Still Possible?DealignmentIndependent VotersNot-So-Independent VotersTippingTipping in MassachusettsTipping in CaliforniaPolitical Parties of the FutureCHAPTER 9: Campaigns, Voting, and ElectionsWho Wants to Be a Candidate?Why They RunThe Nomination ProcessWho Is Eligible?Who Runs?Women as CandidatesThe Twenty-First-Century CampaignThe Changing CampaignThe Professional Campaign StaffThe Strategy of WinningCandidate Visibility and AppealTaking the Public PulseThe Media and Political CampaignsFinancing the CampaignRegulating Campaign FinancingThe Federal Election Campaign ActFurther Reforms in 1974Buckley v. ValeoInterest Groups and Campaign Finance: Reaction to New RulesPACs and Political CampaignsCampaign Financing beyond the LimitsContributions to Political PartiesIndependent ExpendituresIssue AdvocacyThe Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002Key Elements of the New LawThe Rise of the 527sCitizens United, Freedom Now, and the Future of Campaign Finance RegulationRunning for President: The Longest CampaignReforming the PrimariesFront-Loading the PrimariesThe Rush to Be FirstThe 2016 Primary SeasonOn to the National ConventionSeating the DelegatesConvention ActivitiesOn to the General ElectionVoting in the United StatesTurning Out to VoteThe Effect of Low Voter TurnoutIs Voter Turnout Declining?Factors Influencing Who VotesWhy People Do Not VoteUninformative Media Coverage and Negative CampaigningThe Rational Ignorance EffectPlans for Improving Voter TurnoutLegal Restrictions on VotingHistorical RestrictionsProperty RequirementsFurther Extensions of the FranchiseIs the Franchise Still Too Restrictive?Current Eligibility and Registration RequirementsExtension of the Voting Rights ActPrimary Elections, General Elections, and MorePrimary ElectionsClosed PrimaryOpen PrimaryBlanket PrimaryRunoff PrimaryGeneral and Other ElectionsHow Are Elections Conducted?Office-Block and Party-Column BallotsVote FraudThe Danger of FraudMistakes by Voting OfficialsThe Importance of the Voting MachineThe Electoral CollegeThe Choice of ElectorsThe Electors’ CommitmentCriticisms of the Electoral CollegeCHAPTER 10: The Media and PoliticsA Brief History of the Media’s Role in United States PoliticsThe Rise of the Popular PressMass-Readership NewspapersNews Delivered over the AirwavesThe Revolution in Electronic MediaThe Special Relationship between the Media and the ExecutiveThe Internet and Social MediaThe Role of the Media in Our SocietyThe Media’s Political FunctionsProvide InformationIdentify Problems and Set the Public AgendaInvestigate and Report on WrongdoingSocialize New GenerationsProviding a Political Forum for Dialogue and DebateThe Media’s Impact: Political CampaignsAdvertisingManagement of News CoverageCampaign DebatesThe Internet and Social MediaThe Media’s Impact: VotersThe Government’s Regulatory Relationship with MediaGovernment Regulation of the MediaControlling Ownership of the MediaIncreased Media ConcentrationGovernment Control of ContentControl of BroadcastingGovernment Control of the Media during the Second Gulf WarThe Government’s Attempt to Control the Media after the September 11, 2001, AttacksNet NeutralityThe Public’s Right to Media AccessBias in the MediaDo the Media Have a Partisan Bias?A Racial Bias?A Gender Bias?PART IV: Political InstitutionsCHAPTER 11: The CongressThe Functions of CongressThe Lawmaking FunctionThe Representation FunctionThe Trustee View of RepresentationThe Instructed-Delegate View of RepresentationService to ConstituentsThe Oversight FunctionThe Public-Education FunctionThe Conflict-Resolution FunctionThe Powers of CongressEnumerated PowersPowers of the SenateConstitutional AmendmentsThe Necessary and Proper ClauseChecks on CongressHouseSenate DifferencesSize and RulesDebate and FilibusteringPrestigeCongresspersons and the Citizenry: A ComparisonCongressional ElectionsCandidates for Congressional ElectionsCongressional Campaigns and ElectionsPresidential EffectsThe Power of IncumbencyCongressional ApportionmentGerrymanderingRedistricting after the 2010 CensusNonpartisan Redistricting”Minority-Majority” DistrictsConstitutional ChallengesChanging DirectionsPerks and PrivilegesPermanent Professional StaffsPrivileges and Immunities under the LawCongressional Caucuses: Another Source of SupportThe Committee StructureThe Power of CommitteesTypes of Congressional CommitteesStanding CommitteesSelect CommitteesJoint CommitteesConference CommitteesThe House Rules CommitteeThe Selection of Committee MembersThe Formal LeadershipLeadership in the HouseThe SpeakerThe Majority LeaderThe Minority LeaderWhipsLeadership in the SenateHow Members of Congress DecideThe Conservative CoalitionPolarization and Gridlock”Crossing Over”Logrolling, Earmarks, and “Pork”How a Bill Becomes LawHow Much Will the Government Spend?Preparing the BudgetCongress Faces the BudgetBudget ResolutionsCHAPTER 12: The PresidentWho Can Become President?The Process of Becoming PresidentThe Many Roles of the PresidentHead of StateChief ExecutiveThe Powers of Appointment and RemovalThe Power to Grant Reprieves and PardonsCommander in ChiefWartime PowersThe War Powers ResolutionChief DiplomatDiplomatic RecognitionProposal and Ratification of TreatiesExecutive AgreementsChief LegislatorLegislation PassedSaying No to LegislationThe Line-Item VetoCongress’s Power to Override Presidential VetoesOther Presidential PowersThe President as Party Chief and SuperpoliticianThe President as Chief of PartyThe President’s Power to PersuadeConstituencies and Public ApprovalPresidential ConstituenciesPublic ApprovalGeorge W. Bush and the Public Opinion PollsObama and Trump: Public Approval”Going Public”Special Uses of Presidential PowerEmergency PowersExecutive OrdersExecutive PrivilegeLimiting Executive PrivilegeClinton’s Attempted Use of Executive PrivilegeAbuses of Executive Power and ImpeachmentThe Executive OrganizationThe CabinetMembers of the CabinetPresidential Use of CabinetsThe Executive Office of the PresidentThe White House OfficeThe Office of Management and BudgetThe National Security Council”Policy Czars”The Vice PresidencyThe Vice President’s JobStrengthening the TicketSupporting the PresidentPresidential SuccessionThe Twenty-fifth AmendmentWhen the Vice Presidency Becomes VacantCHAPTER 13: The BureaucracyThe Nature of BureaucracyPublic and Private BureaucraciesModels of BureaucracyWeberian ModelAcquisitive ModelMonopolistic ModelBureaucracies ComparedThe Size of the BureaucracyThe Organization of the Federal BureaucracyCabinet DepartmentsIndependent Executive AgenciesIndependent Regulatory AgenciesThe Purpose and Nature of Regulatory AgenciesAgency CaptureDeregulation and ReregulationGovernment CorporationsChallenges to the BureaucracyReorganizing to Stop TerrorismDealing with Natural DisastersStaffing the BureaucracyPolitical AppointeesThe Aristocracy of the Federal GovernmentThe Difficulty in Firing Civil ServantsHistory of the Federal Civil ServiceTo the Victor Belong the SpoilsThe Civil Service Reform Act of 1883The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978Federal Employees and Political CampaignsModern Attempts at Bureaucratic ReformSunshine Laws before and after September 11Information DisclosureCurbs on Information DisclosureSunset LawsPrivatizationIncentives for Efficiency and ProductivityGovernment Performance and Results ActBureaucracy Has Changed LittleSaving Costs through E-GovernmentHelping Out the WhistleblowersLaws Protecting WhistleblowersThe Problem ContinuesBureaucrats as Politicians and PolicymakersThe Rule-Making EnvironmentWaiting Periods and Court ChallengesControversiesNegotiated Rule MakingBureaucrats Are PolicymakersIron TrianglesIssue NetworksCongressional Control of the BureaucracyWays Congress Does Control the BureaucracyReasons Why Congress Cannot Easily Oversee the BureaucracyCHAPTER 14: The CourtsSources of American LawConstitutionsStatutes and Administrative RegulationsCase LawJudicial ReviewThe Federal Court SystemBasic Judicial RequirementsJurisdictionStanding to SueTypes of Federal CourtsU.S. District CourtsU.S. Courts of AppealsThe U.S. Supreme CourtSpecialized Federal Courts and the War on TerrorismThe FISA CourtAlien “Removal Courts”Parties to LawsuitsProcedural RulesThe Supreme Court at WorkWhich Cases Reach the Supreme Court?Factors That Bear on the DecisionGranting Petitions for ReviewDeciding CasesDecisions and OpinionsWhen There Are Eight JusticesThe Selection of Federal JudgesJudicial AppointmentsFederal District Court Judgeship NominationsFederal Courts of Appeals AppointmentsSupreme Court AppointmentsThe Special Role of the Chief JusticePartisanship and Judicial AppointmentsThe Senate’s RolePolicymaking and the CourtsJudicial ReviewJudicial Activism and Judicial RestraintStrict versus Broad ConstructionIdeology and the Rehnquist CourtThe Roberts CourtWhat Checks Our Courts?Executive ChecksLegislative ChecksConstitutional AmendmentsRewriting LawsPublic OpinionJudicial Traditions and DoctrinesHypothetical and Political QuestionsThe Impact of the Lower CourtsPART V: Public PolicyCHAPTER 15: Domestic PolicyThe Policymaking ProcessAgenda BuildingPolicy FormulationPolicy AdoptionPolicy ImplementationPolicy EvaluationHealth CareThe Rising Cost of Health CareAdvanced TechnologyThe Government’s Role in Financing Health CareMedicareMedicaidWhy Has Medicaid Spending Exploded?Medicaid and the StatesThe UninsuredThe 2010 Health-Care Reform LegislationEnvironmental PolicyThe Environmental MovementCleaning Up the Air and WaterThe National Environmental Policy ActCurbing Air PollutionWater PollutionThe Endangered Species ActSustainabilityGlobal Climate ChangeThe Kyoto ProtocolCOP21: The New AgreementThe Global Warming DebateEnergy PolicyEnergy and the EnvironmentNuclear PowerAn Unpopular SolutionAlternative Approaches to the Energy CrisisPoverty and WelfareThe Low-Income PopulationThe Antipoverty BudgetBasic WelfareWelfare ControversiesOther Forms of Government AssistanceHomelessnessStill a ProblemImmigrationThe Continued Influx of ImmigrantsMinority Groups’ Importance on the RiseThe Advantages of High Rates of ImmigrationAttempts at Immigration ReformThe Range of Federal Public PoliciesCHAPTER 16: Economic PolicyProsperity Is the GoalUnemploymentUnemployment Becomes an IssueMeasuring UnemploymentInflationThe Business CycleThe Economic ToolkitEconomic Theory Guides PolicyLaissez-Faire EconomicsKeynesian Economic TheorySupply-Side EconomicsFiscal PolicyDiscretionary Fiscal PolicyThe Thorny Problem of TimingGovernment BorrowingThe Public Debt in PerspectiveThe Politics of TaxesFederal Income Tax RatesLoopholes and Lowered TaxesProgressive and Regressive TaxationWho Pays?Entitlements: The Big Budget ItemSocial Security and MedicareSocial Security Is Not a Pension FundWhat Will It Take to Salvage Social Security?Raise TaxesConsider Other OptionsPrivatize Social SecurityMonetary PolicyOrganization of the Federal Reserve SystemLoose and Tight Monetary PoliciesTime Lags for Monetary PolicyMonetary versus Fiscal PolicyGlobalization and World TradeImports and ExportsThe Impact of Import Restrictions on ExportsQuotas and TariffsFree-Trade Areas and Common MarketsThe World Trade OrganizationWhat the WTO DoesSending Work OverseasFacing the FutureCHAPTER 17: Foreign Policy and National SecurityFacing the World: Foreign and Defense PolicyNational Security PolicyDiplomacyWho Makes Foreign Policy?Constitutional Powers of the PresidentWar PowersTreaties and Executive AgreementsOther Constitutional PowersInformal Techniques of Presidential LeadershipOther Sources of Foreign PolicymakingThe Department of StateThe National Security CouncilThe Intelligence CommunityCovert ActionsCriticisms of the Intelligence CommunityThe Department of Defense (DOD)Congress Balances the PresidencyDomestic Sources of Foreign PolicyElite and Mass OpinionInterest Group Politics in Global AffairsThe Major Themes of American Foreign PolicyThe Formative Years: Avoiding EntanglementsThe Monroe DoctrineThe SpanishAmerican War and World War IThe Era of InternationalismThe Cold WarContainment PolicySuperpower RelationsThe Cuban Missile CrisisA Period of DétenteThe ReaganBush YearsThe Dissolution of the Soviet UnionThe War on TerrorThe Iraq and Afghanistan WarsThe Persian GulfThe First Gulf WarThe Iraq WarOccupied IraqThe Situation WorsensThe Bush SurgeThe “Necessary” WarGlobal Policy ChallengesThe Emerging World OrderThe Threat of TerrorismTerrorism and Regional StrifeTerrorist Attacks against Foreign CiviliansLondon BombingsNuclear WeaponsThe United States and the Soviet UnionNuclear ProliferationThe United States and Regional ConflictsThe Middle EastThe Arab SpringIranian AmbitionsCentral and South AmericaWar and HIV/AIDS in AfricaPART VI: State and Local PoliticsCHAPTER 18: State and Local GovernmentThe U.S. Constitution and the State GovernmentsWhy Are State Constitutions So Long?The Constitutional Convention and the Constitutional InitiativeThe State Executive BranchA Weak ExecutiveIncreasing the Governor’s PowerThe Governor’s Veto PowerThe State LegislatureLegislative ApportionmentMinority RepresentationPolitical GerrymanderingTerm Limits for State LegislatorsEthics and Campaign Finance Reform in the StatesDirect Democracy: The Initiative, Referendum, and RecallThe InitiativeThe ReferendumThe RecallThe State JudiciaryTrial CourtsAppellate CourtsJudicial Elections and AppointmentsHow Local Government OperatesThe Legal Existence of Local GovernmentLocal Governmental UnitsMunicipalitiesCountiesTowns and TownshipsSpecial Districts and School DistrictsConsolidation of GovernmentsHow Municipalities Are GovernedThe Commission PlanThe Council-Manager PlanThe Mayor-Administrator PlanThe Mayor-Council PlanMachine versus Reform in City PoliticsPaying for State and Local GovernmentState and Local Government ExpendituresState and Local Government RevenuesThe Struggle to Balance State BudgetsGetting into Trouble: Borrowing Too MuchGetting into Trouble: Poor ProductivityGetting into Trouble: Health-Care CostsStates Recover from the RecessionStates as Policy PioneersAppendix A: The Declaration of IndependenceAppendix B: The Constitution of the United StatesAppendix C: The Federalist Papers Nos. 10 and 51GlossaryIndex